Tuesday, June 26, 2012

Summer 2012 - From Chilly To Extended HEAT


June 23, 2012
Upper Tennessee River Basin
Spangled Skimmer Dragonfly ( Libellula cyanea )
Photograph by Richard Kretz - © All Rights Reserved.

Like a suped up Jet Fighter readied for take-off in a flash, this male Dragonfly is the real deal when it comes to SPEED and is a very important natural predator 
( feeding on mosquitoes, flies, ants and other insects ).


On a summer night with temperatures already deeply into the 40s amid mountain valleys it is almost hard to believe that blazing heat will spread east from the central USA into the Appalachian Highlands in just a few days ( by June 28-30+ ).

MAX temperatures only reached the mid-upper 60s in higher elevations of the High Knob Massif during June 26, with a rapid evening plunge into the 40s amid lofty mountain valleys.

( Updated: AM of June 27, 2012 )
Morning minimums reached upper 30s to lower 40s in colder mountain valleys to make talk of an upcoming wave of extended heat only thoughts on this chilly summer morn!

Such cold temperatures are characteristic of summer dryness, with drought years sometimes generating frost in high mountain valleys.  Case in point, 1988 when frosty conditions occurred in coldest locations during both June and July!

While summer dryness promotes HEAT it also supports atypically large day to night temperature spreads which occasionally can generate such nocturnal coldness, especially in high valleys resting amid the 2400 to 3600 foot elevation zone.

June 23, 2012
Female of The Species
Spangled Skimmer Dragonfly ( Libellula cyanea )
Photograph by Richard Kretz - © All Rights Reserved.

Climatology shows that its hard to get REALLY HOT in mid-upper elevations ( above 2000 feet ) of the area unless there is DRY ground and strongly sinking air to kill all cloud formations and development of showers and downpours in booming thunderstorms.


MAX Annual Temperatures
Wise 3 E and Wise 1 SE
*( MAX Temp & Date of Occurrence )

Wise 3 E NWS Cooperative
Elevation 2549 feet

86  7-28-2011
90  7-25-2010
85  8-10-2009
87  7-21-2008
92  8-24-2007
88  8-02-2006
88  7-25-2005
88  8-04-2004
88  8-26-2003
89  8-03-2002
86  7-24-2001
87  8-07-2000
91  7-31-1999
90  9-14-1998
89  8-16-1997
90  5-19-1996
93  7-15-1995
92  6-19-1994
90  9-01-1993


Wise 1 SE NWS Cooperative
Elevation 2560 feet

87  7-13-1992
86  9-16-1991
89  9-07-1990
86  7-11-1989
94  8-18-1988
91  8-22-1987
88  6-22-1986
88  6-10-1985
86  6-15-1984
92  8-22-1983
85  8-05-1982
87  7-27-1981
92  7-16-1980
87  8-08-1979
89  6-27-1978
89  7-17-1977
89  7-24-1976
89  9-05-1975
85  7-18-1974
88  9-02-1973
86  7-23-1972
86  8-10-1971
87  7-29-1970
88  7-06-1969
89  8-22-1968
85  6-18-1967
92  7-14-1966
89  8-18-1965
88  6-22-1964
90  8-03-1963
88  8-21-1962
86  7-21-1961
86  9-06-1960
88  8-24-1959
86  7-28-1958
89  8-13-1957
88  8-06-1956
91  8-04-1955

Average Annual MAX: 88.4 degrees
( 57 years from 1955 to 2011 )

*While some years may have had more than 1 day at the reported MAX, these were the highest temperatures observed during each year ( missing data was noted during 1984 and 1986 ).
All temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit.

Data courtesy of Roy L. Wells, Jr., NWS Cooperative Observer, and the National Climatic Data Center.


A review of the past 57 years finds that only 15 years, or 26 percent, reached 90 degrees or higher at the official National Weather Service ( NWS ) Cooperative Stations in the town of Wise.

The longest stretch with no 90 degree readings was observed from 1967-1979 when 13 years passed with no temperatures above 85 to 89 degrees.

The longest recent stretch without 90 degree temperatures in Wise was the 7 year period from 2000 to 2006 ( max 89 degrees on August 3, 2002 ).

Annual maximums have occurred as early in the year as May 19 and as late as September 16.

Higher elevations in the High Knob Massif, and along the Tennessee Valley Divide, have lower annual maximums than Wise ( especially above 3000 feet and along northern exposed slopes ).

Some northern slope locations between 2000 and 3000 feet in the High Knob Massif also tend to have lower maximums than Wise due to exposure and more daytime cloudiness & rainfall.

A survey finds that the average annual max on Eagle Knob of the High Knob Massif was 9 degrees lower than observed in Wise, with the highest temperature recorded during the past 11 years 
( 2001-2011 ) being 82 degrees ( at 4178 feet ).


Short-Term Precipitation

Rainfall during the May-June period leading up to this wave of extended heating has generally been below to much below average across the region, with May 1-June 27 totals varying from 3.27" in the Tri-Cities ( TRI ) of the Great Valley to 8.00-10.00"+ amid localized places along the High Knob Massif and highlands of the Tennessee Valley Divide 
( 8.50" to 9.00" in the Big Cherry Basin ).

Most Recent Days of Rainfall

Doppler Estimated Rainfall For June 20, 2012

Doppler Estimated Rainfall For June 21-22, 2012

Heavy rains have recently been only hit-miss in nature following the atypical orographic forcing event that closed May and opened June.

Reference the following for details:

Black-Shoulder Spinyleg ( Dromogomphus spinosus )
Photograph by Richard Kretz - © All Rights Reserved.

Summer 2012 is yet to prove if it can sustain this short-term dryness since a dry June does not necessarily mean a dry summer ( with a general 30.00" to 35.00" of total precipitation having accumulated so far this year in rain gauges of the High Knob Massif - City of Norton area ).

Other locations in the region have been much drier 
this year, with January 1 to June 27 totals of 21.01" in Clintwood of the Russell Fork Basin, 17.99" in the Tri-Cities ( TRI ) of northeastern Tennessee, and just 15.96" along the Ohio River in Huntington, West Virginia.

Compared to recent summers this one is beginning dry in many places with nocturnal coolness and a upcoming HEAT surge that is reminiscent of drought years in 1988 and 2007.


Reference the following for a recap of recent summers:





Calico Pennant Dragonfly ( Celithemis elisa )
Photograph by Richard Kretz - © All Rights Reserved.


Near Perfect Day
of Surface Heating

Daylight hours of June 28 had near perfect heating conditions with not even a single cloud visible all day across the famed southern Appalachians.

Even the highest summits could not muster a cumulus, with only a few fragments on NASA imagery along and north of the Ohio River and isolated over Kentucky and Tennessee.

A warm layer aloft, known as a CAP in meteorology, combined with strongly SINKING air and a dry air mass to prevent clouds from forming despite some low-level upsloping on breezy to gusty SSW-NW winds across the southern Appalachians ( 10-20 mph gusts ).

NASA Visible Image At 10:01 AM - June 28, 2012

NASA Visible Image At 12:15 PM - June 28, 2012

NASA Visible Image At 1:15 PM - June 28, 2012

NASA Visible Image At 2:15 PM - June 28, 2012

NASA Visible Image At 3:45 PM - June 28, 2012

Not many days like June 28 are observed, when intense heating combined with mountainous terrain produces no clouds ( NADA ), none at all, even above the highest peaks!

That such days are rare is one reason why 90+ degree maximums are relatively uncommon at elevations like Wise which benefit from clouds, as well as summer convection or cooling outflows from nearby storms, which typically form above the High Knob Massif and Tennessee Valley Divide during days with intense heating. 

General wetness of the High Knob Massif area having 
a large impact upon much of Wise, northern Scott, northeastern Lee, Dickenson, and Russell counties during typical summers when the massif becomes a focus of cloud formation and convection which develops outward to impact adjacent locations in the Clinch, Powell, and Russell Fork basins.

Occasionally, as seen on days like this during periods of abnormal dryness or drought, sinking air aloft overwhelms these more typical low-level impacts of the massif area.

Local and regional feedback processes complicating the pattern of warm season rains.

Reference the following to gain a better understanding of these important warm season processes that impact summer precipitation amounts in the High Knob Massif area:

( Examples From The 2010 Summer Season )


Eastern Pondhawk Dragonfly ( Erythemis simplicicollis )
Photograph by Richard Kretz - © All Rights Reserved.


The ALL-TIME
Hottest Temperatures
June 29, 2012

For the second consecutive day temperatures soared beneath cloud free skies and strongly sinking air across most of the Mountain Empire, with blazing afternoon temperatures that are making history by breaking ALL-TIME records! 

June 29, 2012
High Resolution NASA Visible At 4:15 PM

With Debby moving away on far right a new focus of concern was exploding over the Midwest, near upper left of image, with a Mesoscale Convective System ( MCS ) gaining strength and speed in extreme heat and instability.  Sinking air flowing outward from upper levels of these monsters, with clouds tops to 58,000 feet ( 11 vertical miles into the heavens ), was no doubt enhancing local heating via compensating subsidence. 

When air rises in the atmosphere it must be compensated for by sinking, or subsidence, such that large thunderstorm clusters and tropical cyclones can add to sinking beneath heat ridges to make conditions hotter than they would otherwise get without them being present ( temps rise when air sinks vertically ).

June 29, 2012
High Resolution NASA Visible At 4:15 PM

The big picture showing convective clusters forming around a blazing heat dome in a developing "ring of fire."

June 29, 2012
High Resolution NASA Visible At 5:32 PM

Perhaps the greatest testimony to this vertical sinking was simply extraordinary heating which occurred in mid to upper elevations of the southern Appalachians where Summer MAXS are typically much cooler than lower elevations ( below 2000 feet ).

A few specific maximums by 
elevation for June 29-30, 2012

Mount LeConte 
82 degrees at 6400 feet
( an upper North Slope weather station )

Newfound Gap 
92 degrees at 5000 feet

Grayson Highlands State Park 
89 degrees at 4000 feet

Robinson Knob of High Knob Massif
92 degrees at 3240 feet

Long Ridge of Sandy Ridge
97 degrees at 2650 feet

*Wise 3 E
95 degrees at 2549 feet

*Highest temperature ever observed ( 1955-Present ).


Dangerous Weather Pattern
Extreme Heat + Derechos

Weather extremes are always problematic and in this case numerous aspects are developing due to what has turned into exceptional, record breaking heat that produced the highest temperatures ever observed in much of the area during June 29 with  85 to 90 degrees up to near the 4000 foot level from the High Knob Massif to Mount Rogers-Whitetop.  As noted above, simply amazing!

The first of what likely will be numerous thunderstorm clusters fired over the upper Midwest along the periphery of this huge dome of excessive heat, beneath which the ground is baking and nary a drop of rain or even significant cumulus clouds can be found.

The June 29 storm cluster, known as a Mesoscale Convective System ( MCS ) turned into a Derecho as it fed upon extreme thermodynamic instability the likes of which is rarely ever seen in this region as illustrated by a couple of graphics below.



Lifted Index Graphic For 2:00 PM - June 29, 2012

Most Unstable CAPE For 2:00 PM - June 29, 2012

For anyone knowing a little about weather these two graphics are simply incredible, with LI's to under -14 and MUCAPE values of more than 6000 J/Kg centered ahead of the developing derecho. 

Although southeastern Kentucky, much of southwestern Virginia and extreme northern Tennessee only got brushed by the derecho it generated a significant outflow boundary that gushed across the mountain landscape with 
40-60+ mile per hour winds.

More than 4.3 Million places, from Illinois to the Atlantic Coast, lost electricity during the peak of this event ( hundreds of thousands remain out as of July 4 ).  At least 26 fatalities have been reported.

RLX Doppler Clip of June 29, 2012 Derecho


Time Series of Derecho 
Outflow Boundary
( Early Evening of June 29, 2012 )

Click On Images Consecutively To Put Into Motion

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:30 PM - June 29, 2012
 

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:34 PM - June 29, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:47 PM - June 29, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:00 PM - June 29, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:12 PM - June 29, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:30 PM - June 29, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:47 PM - June 29, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:00 PM - June 29, 2012

The GREEN LINE above denotes the outflow boundary of this vicious derecho with its gush of ROARING winds.  If the atmosphere in this area had not been so strongly CAPPED and dominated by subsidence aloft it would have generated a HUGE squall line analogous to that which ripped across Ohio and West Virginia where the cap broke.

The thinning and apparent dissipation of the green line above upon crossing into the Virginia mountains being products of its interaction with the higher terrain and the increased overshooting of it by the Doppler with increasing distance from the Jackson, Kentucky radar site ( i.e., the gust front remained stronger for longer than suggested by this time series but was impacted by rugged terrain in the Virginia-Kentucky border area ).


Climate Statistics
For June 2012

June 25, 2012
Pound Gap of Pine Mountain
Starry June Night Above The Cumberlands
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.


( Lower elevations of Russell Fork Basin )
Clintwood 1 W - Elevation 1560 feet
Average Daily MAX: 80.4 degrees
Average Daily MIN: 52.4 degrees
MEAN: 66.4 degrees
*Highest Temperature: 97 degrees
Lowest Temperature: 45 degrees
June Rainfall: 1.83"
2012 Precipitation: 21.01"

( Northern base of High Knob Massif )
City of Norton - Elevation 2141 feet
Average Daily MAX: 79.2 degrees
Average Daily MIN: 50.4 degrees
MEAN: 64.8 degrees
*Highest Temperature: 97 degrees
Lowest Temperature: 43 degrees
June Rainfall: 2.79"
2012 Precipitation: 30.05"

( North of Massif on Wise Plateau )
Wise 3 E - Elevation 2549 feet
Average Daily MAX: 78.6 degrees
Average Daily MIN: 56.2 degrees
MEAN: 67.4 degrees
*Highest Temperature: 95 degrees
Lowest Temperature: 45 degrees
June Rainfall: 2.72"
2012 Precipitation: 22.67"

( Along the Tennessee Valley Divide )
Nora 4 SSE - Elevation 2650 feet
Average Daily MAX: 77.2 degrees
Average Daily MIN: 59.0 degrees
MEAN: 68.1 degrees
*Highest Temperature: 97 degrees
Lowest Temperature: 45 degrees
June Rainfall: 2.75"
2012 Precipitation: 23.14"

*All-Time highest temperature ever observed at recording site.

In the High Knob highcountry June temperature means varied from upper 60s to lower 70s by day at highest elevations to mid-upper 40s at night in colder mountain valleys.

June 2012 was a month of great temperature extremes with all-time record heat closing the month to generate a monthly variation of up to 60+ degrees within the massif area ( from upper 30s in colder valleys of mid-upper elevations to near 100 degrees in the hottest, lowest elevation valleys along the ecologically rich Clinch & Powell rivers during June 29-30 ).  Simply amazing!

June 25, 2012
Starry Night Vista Above Pound Gap
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

Dawn of the following morning ( June 26 ) produced 40s in cooler mountain valleys, with upper 30s-lower 40s in higher elevation valleys during morning hours of 
June 27, ahead of blazing heat.

June 25, 2012
On A Star Filled Late June Night
Geologic Layers of The Pound Gap
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

June rainfall was much below average with totals in the High Knob Massif generally varying between 3.00" and 4.00" from the Little Stone-Pickem Mountain flank across the highcountry into the Clinch River Valley of northern Scott County 
( e.g., the Big Stony Creek-Fort Blackmore area ).

Totals of between 2.00" and 3.00" were locally common outside the massif, with amounts of less than 2.00" in places like Clintwood ( 1.83" ) of the Russell Fork Basin and the Tri-Cities ( 1.20" ) of the Great Valley in northeastern Tennessee ( ** ).

**Regional extremes found only 0.37" of rainfall in London ( LOZ ) Kentucky during June, setting a new record for all-time June dryness ( record period November 11, 1954 to present ).

Tuesday, June 5, 2012

Special Gallery - Colors of Heaven's Glory


October 18, 2007
Sunrise Along The Tennessee Valley Divide
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.


Current Climate Statistics

Ever changing arrays of atmospheric conditions & light combine with mountains and moisture to produce colors of heavenly glory above the southern Appalachians like few other places on planet Earth.

Orographic mountain wave clouds being a consistent part of these settings.

This section is a monthly composite of scenes captured during the 2006-2012 period above the High Knob Landform-Tennessee Valley Divide and Pine Mountain area of far southwestern Virginia and extreme southeastern Kentucky.

Create a dark room for viewing and these photographs will simply amaze.

Relax & Enjoy!

( Best viewed using Google Chrome, Safari, or Firefox ).


January

January 1, 2006
Sunrise Along The Tennessee Valley Divide
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

January 2, 2012
Sun Pillar Beam Ahead of Sunrise Beyond Horizon
Photograph by Genevie Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

January 4, 2012
Majestic Morning Sunrise Above Coeburn 1
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

January 4, 2012
Majestic Morning Sunrise Above Coeburn 2
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

January 5, 2008
Sunrise Colors Along The Tennessee Valley Divide
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

January 5, 2011
Three Bluebirds Enjoy A Colorful Dawn
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

January 7, 2010
Pink & Blue Sunrise Above Snowpack
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

January 10, 2012
Deep Blue Morning As Sunrise Begins
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

January 10, 2012
Midnight Blue To Gold As Sunrise Develops
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

January 12, 2008
( Note Boomerang Waves Outward From Massif )
Mountain Wave Colors Above High Knob Massif
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

January 12, 2009
Flaming Red Sunrise Above High Knob Massif
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

January 13, 2008
Colorful January Sunrise
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

January 13, 2010
Sunrise Upon High Knob Massif
Rime Capped Morris Butte of Powell Mountain
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

January 13, 2011
Looking East To NW Flank of High Knob Landform
Sunrise Over Cumberland Mountain - Pine Mountain SP
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

January 13, 2011
Pine Mountain SP to Cumberland Gap NHP
Looking To NW Flank of High Knob Landform
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

January 20, 2011
Gravity Waves & Colors From Tennessee Valley Divide
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

January 22, 2011
Looking from Long Ridge to High Knob Massif
The Last Light Of Day Illuminates Mountain Waves
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

January 25, 2011
From Tennessee Valley Divide to Clinch Mountain
Beautiful Light & Mountain Waves Above Coeburn
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

January 26, 2012
Colors Of A Winter Sunrise 1
Photograph by Genevie Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

January 26, 2012
Colors Of A Winter Sunrise 2
Photograph by Genevie Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

January 28, 2012
Pine Mountain SP to Cumberland Gap NHP
Looking To NW Flank of High Knob Landform
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

January 29, 2010
Magical Morning Sky Above Powell River Valley
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

January 31, 2009
Sunset Looking Toward High Knob Massif
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.




February

February 2, 2008
Awesome Sunrise Colors & Wave Clouds
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

February 5, 2009
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Awesome Sunrise In Historic Cumberland Gap
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

February 8, 2011
Morning Light Upon Rime Capped Morris Butte
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

February 9, 2011
Pillar Of Light Sunrise From Tennessee Valley Divide
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

February 11, 2010
Karst Landscape of Powell River Basin
Wondrous Sky Light & Waves From Wilson Hill
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

February 17, 2008
Exotic Sunday Morning Sunrise
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

February 26, 2010
U.S. 23 Near Powell Valley Overlook
Glorious Sunrise & Standing Waves
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.




March

March 4, 2010
Heavens Glow Upon Rime Capped Massif
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

March 5, 2009
Powell River Basin of High Knob Landform
Glorious Sunset Upon Karst Landscape 
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

March 9, 2010
Tennessee Valley Divide
End Of A Bluebird Day On Long Ridge
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

March 12, 2010
Powell River Basin of High Knob Landform
Sunrise From Silver Leaf of Lee County
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

March 13, 2011
Head of Powell Valley of High Knob Massif
Sunrise Wave Clouds On A Sunday Morn 1
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

March 13, 2011
Head of Powell Valley of High Knob Massif
Sunrise Wave Clouds On A Sunday Morn 2
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

March 13, 2011
Head of Powell Valley of High Knob Massif
Sunrise Wave Clouds On A Sunday Morn 3
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

March 17, 2011
Sunset At Powell Valley Overlook ( U.S. 23 )
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

March 21, 2010
Spring Sunrise Upon The Tennessee Valley Divide
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

March 24, 2010
Remnant Massif of High Knob Landform
Morning Inversion Upon Powell Valley Floor
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

March 24, 2010
Sunrise & Jet Contrail On Tennessee Valley Divide
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

March 27, 2010
High Knob Massif Crest Zone
Classic Early Morning Rime View
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

March 27, 2010
Tennessee Valley Divide
Trees Against A Golden Sunset
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

March 27, 2012
Ridge Top Sunset In Powell River Basin
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

March 31, 2012
Tennessee Valley Divide
Rainbow Thunder Bolt Over Long Ridge
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

March 31, 2012
Rainbow Thunder Bolt ( Close Up View )
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.




April

April 2, 2011
High Knob Massif Crest Zone
Early Morning Light From Highcountry
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

April 2, 2011
Tennessee Valley Divide
Last Light Upon The Highlands
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

April 2, 2012
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Morning Light of Spring 2012 - Vista 1
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

April 2, 2012
( Note Waves Formed In Valley Fog )
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Morning Light of Spring 2012 - Vista 2
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

April 5, 2011
Morning Sunrise Between Norton & Coeburn
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

April 6, 2010
Flag Rock Recreation Area
Sunset From Upper Campground
Photograph by Jimmy Fawbush - © All Rights Reserved.

April 7, 2010
Powell Valley Gazebo In Morning Light
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

April 9, 2011
Evening Light Illuminates Severe Thunderstorms
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

April 15, 2010
Chilly Spring Morning On Floor of Powell Valley
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

April 15, 2010
Spring Sunset From Tennessee Valley Divide
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

April 17, 2011
Full Moon Over Wise, Virginia
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

April 23, 2012
Beautiful Light Above High Knob Massif
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

April 26, 2012
Powell Valley Overlook
Little Stone Mountain Gap of High Knob Massif
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.




May

May 6, 2010
Golden Spring Morning - Tennessee Valley Divide
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

May 7, 2010
Along High Knob Massif
Wild Morning Waves Form In Airflow
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

May 8, 2009
Sunrise Before A Spring Rain
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

May 12, 2012
Sunrise Vista 1 - Birch Knob of Pine Mountain
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

May 12, 2012
Sunrise Vista 2 - Birch Knob of Pine Mountain
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

May 12, 2012
Sunrise Vista 3 - Birch Knob of Pine Mountain
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

May 12, 2012
( Count The Ridges If You Can )
Sunrise Vista 4 - Birch Knob of Pine Mountain
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

May 13, 2010
( Stacked Lenticular Clouds )
Sunrise Above The City of Norton - Vista 1
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

May 13, 2010
Sunrise Above The City of Norton - Vista 2
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

May 13, 2010
Sunrise Above The City of Norton - Vista 3
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

May 13, 2010
Morning Inversion In Powell Valley
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

May 15, 2010
Sunrise On The Tennessee Valley Divide
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

May 16, 2012
Beautiful Colors From Lonesome Pine Airport
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

May 17, 2010
Tennessee Valley Divide
Bear Creek of Wise Plateau
Turbulent Skies Near Sunset
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

May 23, 2010
Birch Knob of Pine Mountain
Earth's Predawn Halo Before Sunrise
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

May 23, 2010
Birch Knob of Pine Mountain
Sunrise Above Morning Inversion Cloud Bank
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

May 24, 2012
Powell Valley of High Knob Massif
Waves In Cloud Bank of Morning Inversion
Photograph by Bill Harris - © All Rights Reserved.

May 25, 2010
Tennessee Valley Divide
Dawn Sun Dog ( False Sun ) Before Sunrise
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.




June

June 2, 2008
Sunrise Along The Tennessee Valley Divide
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

June 3, 2009
Sunrise Along The Tennessee Valley Divide
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

June 3, 2012
Sunrise In The Upper Tennessee River Basin
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

June 4, 2007
Powell River Basin of High Knob Landform
Gorgeous Skies Looking West - Karst Landscape
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

June 5, 2009
Birch Knob of Pine Mountain
Above The Morning Cloud Bank At Sunrise
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

June 9, 2008
Tennessee Valley Divide
End Of A Summer Thunderstorm
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

June 14, 2011
Sunrise In A Golden Sky
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

June 21, 2007
Viewed From The Tennessee Valley Divide
Sunset Upon Pound Gap of Pine Mountain - Vista 1
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

June 21, 2007
Viewed From The Tennessee Valley Divide
Sunset Upon Pound Gap of Pine Mountain - Vista 2
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

June 21, 2007
Viewed From The Tennessee Valley Divide
Sunset Upon Pound Gap of Pine Mountain - Vista 3
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

June 21, 2007
Viewed From The Tennessee Valley Divide
Sunset Upon Pound Gap of Pine Mountain - Vista 4
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

June 21, 2010
Tennessee Valley Divide
Double Rainbows Above The High Ridges
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

June 21, 2010
Dramatic Sunset Following The Rainbows
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

June 25, 2012
Sunset From Flag Rock Recreation Area
Photograph by Bill Harris - © All Rights Reserved.

June 25, 2012
Pound Gap of Pine Mountain
Starry Night Above The Cumberlands 1
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

June 25, 2012
Pound Gap of Pine Mountain
Starry Night Above The Cumberlands 2
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

June 25, 2012
Pound Gap of Pine Mountain
Starry Night Above The Cumberlands 3
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

June 25, 2012
Pound Gap of Pine Mountain
Starry Night Above The Cumberlands 4
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

June 28, 2010
Night Falls Upon The Cumberlands
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.


At this mid-point in the year it should now be clear that these photographs focus mostly upon sunrise and sunset periods when wondrous arrays of light, moisture, orographically forced mountain wave clouds and inversion layers generate the most spectacular atmospheric colorations!



July

July 1, 2012
Birch Knob of Pine Mountain
Gorgeous Sunday Sunrise Series - Vista 1
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

July 1, 2012
Birch Knob of Pine Mountain
Gorgeous Sunday Sunrise Series - Vista 2
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

July 1, 2012
Birch Knob of Pine Mountain
Gorgeous Sunday Sunrise Series - Vista 3
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

July 1, 2012 at 11:18 PM
Vivid Lightning Display Above Wise
Photograph by Grant Stanley - © All Rights Reserved.

July 4, 2012
Independence Day Fireworks In Clintwood 1
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

July 4, 2012
Independence Day Fireworks In Clintwood 2
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

July 4, 2012
Independence Day Fireworks In Clintwood 3
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

July 7, 2008
Mid-Summer Sunrise - Tennessee Valley Divide
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

July 14, 2007
Sunset Viewed From Long Ridge of Sandy Ridge
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

July 14, 2010
Looking Toward South Fork Gorge
Multi-layered Morning Fog In Powell Valley
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

July 15, 2009
Golden Rays of Mid-Summer Sunrise
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

July 18, 2008
Shimmering Light of Sunrise
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

July 19, 2012
Powell River Basin
Cloud To Ground Lightning Strike
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

July 19, 2012
High Knob Landform
Different Types Of Lightning
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

July 19, 2012
Lightning Circuits In The Sky
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

July 19, 2012
Powell River Watershed
Upper Tennessee River Basin
Vivid Lightning Circuit Above Silver Leaf
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

July 23, 2010
A Pink Morning Above Rising Fog
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

July 2000
Mammatus Clouds Near Sunset
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved.

July 23, 2012
High Knob Meadow
Majestic Glory Of The Milky Way
Photograph by Grant Stanley - © All Rights Reserved.

July 25, 2012
Colorful Rainbow - After Excessive Local Rainfall
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

July 28, 2012
Beauty Of Morning Colors & Wave Clouds
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

July 30, 2012
Majesty Of Evening Thunderheads Above The Highlands
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.




August

August 2, 2007
Thick Haze of Early August Sunset
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

August 7, 2012
Looking To High Knob Massif
Heavenly Evening Light & Highland Wildflowers
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

August 7, 2012
Cloud Capped Forests Of High Knob Massif
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

August 7, 2012
Heavenly Rays Of Sunlight
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

August 7, 2012
Glory Of Heavenly Light Near Sunset
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

August 7, 2012
Looking Into The Wondrous Heavens
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

August 7, 2012
View From Lonesome Pine Airport
Looking West Into Heavenly Light & Rising Air
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

August 9, 2008
Flaming Wave Clouds At Sunset
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

August 10, 2007
Halo of Sunset In The Highlands
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

August 12, 2012
Majesty Of The Milky Way Galaxy 
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

August 12, 2012
"A Shooting Star" - Annual Perseids Meteor
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

August 12, 2012
Colorful Tail Of Perseids Meteor
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

August 13, 2012
Cumberland Overthrust Block
Magnificent Sunset From Boggs Hill
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

August 13, 2012
Flaming Colors Of An August Sunset
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

August 17, 2007
The Great Ball of Fire At Sunset
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

August 25, 2007
Moon Rise Above A Pink Thunderhead
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

August 27, 2007
Majesty Of A Golden Highland Morning
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

August 30, 2006
Crepuscular Rays Of Mountain Majesty
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

August 30, 2006
Crepuscular Rays & Turbulent Clouds
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.




September

September 1, 2012
Long Ridge of Tennessee Valley Divide
Evening Thunderhead Above The Highlands
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

September 9, 2012
Birch Knob of Pine Mountain - Sunrise Vista 1
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

September 9, 2012
Turbulent Waves Atop Morning Inversion
Birch Knob of Pine Mountain - Sunrise Vista 2
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

September 9, 2012
Birch Knob of Pine Mountain - Sunrise Vista 3
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

September 9, 2012
Highland Meadow Emerges Above Inversion
Birch Knob of Pine Mountain - Sunrise Vista 4
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

September 9, 2012
Birch Knob of Pine Mountain - Sunrise Vista 5
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

September 10, 2011
Birch Knob of Pine Mountain
Sun Rising Above Cloud Bank - Vista 1
Photograph by Bill Harris - © All Rights Reserved.

September 10, 2011
Birch Knob of Pine Mountain
Sun Rising Above Cloud Bank - Vista 2
Photograph by Bill Harris - © All Rights Reserved.

September 13, 2012
Long Ridge of Tennessee Valley Divide
Late Evening Colors Of Sunset In The Highlands
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

September 14, 2006
Bloody Ground - Sunrise Over Historic Landscape
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

September 15, 2008
Glorious Sky of Early Autumn
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

September 16, 2007
Blazing Colors of An Early Autumn Sunset
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

September 16, 2007
Post-Sunrise View of Multiple Cloud Layers
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

September 16, 2011
"Cool" Sunrise Along Tennessee Valley Divide
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

September 17, 2011
Light Of The Moon
Photograph by Jonathan Owens - © All Rights Reserved.

September 18, 2006
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Sunrise Fog Arch In "The Cumberland Gap"
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

September 20, 2008
A Pumpkin Colored Morning
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

September 22, 2007
Another Spectacular Mountain Sunrise
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.




October

October 2, 2010
Cold Air Drainage Over Warmer Water
Early Morning Steam Fog - Bark Camp Lake
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

October 2, 2010
Cold Air Drainage Over Warmer Water
Early Morning Steam Fog - Bark Camp Lake
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

October 4, 2006
Cumberland Gap NHP of The HKL
Awesome Cumberland Gap Sunrise
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

October 7, 2011
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Pinnacle Overlook - Morning Sunrise Vista 1
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

October 7, 2011
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Pinnacle Overlook - Morning Sunrise Vista 2
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

October 7, 2011
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Pinnacle Overlook - Morning Sunrise Vista 3
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

October 7, 2011
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Pinnacle Overlook - Morning Sunrise Vista 4
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

October 7, 2011
Tennessee Valley Divide
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Pinnacle Overlook - Morning Sunrise Vista 5
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

October 9, 2011
Tennessee Valley Divide
Spectacular Sunrise Waves & Colors - Vista 1
Photograph by Genevie Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

October 9, 2011
Tennessee Valley Divide
Spectacular Sunrise Waves & Colors - Vista 2
Photograph by Genevie Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

October 13, 2007
Contrails & Standing Waves At Sunrise
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

October 13, 2010
Flag Rock Recreation Area
Colors Shine As Sunset Approaches
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

October 13, 2010
Flag Rock Recreation Area
Post-Sunset Color Glow ( City of Norton )

October 13, 2010
Sunset At Flag Rock Recreation Area
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

October 15, 2010
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Rays of Glorious Sunrise - The Pinnacle Overlook
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

October 15, 2010
From The Pinnacle Overlook
Early Morning On The Valley Floor
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

October 15, 2010
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Glory of Morning Sunbeam & Turbulent Clouds
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

October 18, 2011
Cumberland Gap NHP
Golden Pre-Sunrise Light Beams
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

October 18, 2011
A Pinnacle Overlook Morning
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

October 21, 2006
Classic Photograph In Morning Light
Historic Cumberland Gap Funneling Fog
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

October 21, 2009
Powell Valley of High Knob Massif
Frosty Morning Fog In Cracker Neck
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.


A Time Series Of Sunrise Glory
( Mountain Wave Clouds On SE Air Flow )

October 23, 2009
Powell Valley Floor of High Knob Massif
Sunrise Mountain Wave Clouds - Vista 1
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

October 23, 2009
Powell Valley Floor of High Knob Massif
Sunrise Mountain Wave Clouds - Vista 2
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

October 23, 2009
Powell Valley Floor of High Knob Massif
Sunrise Mountain Wave Clouds - Vista 3
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

October 23, 2009
Powell Valley Floor of High Knob Massif
Sunrise Mountain Wave Clouds - Vista 4
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

October 23, 2009
Powell Valley Floor of High Knob Massif
Sunrise Mountain Wave Clouds - Vista 5
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

October 23, 2009
Powell Valley Floor of High Knob Massif
Sunrise Mountain Wave Clouds - Vista 6
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

October 23, 2009
Powell Valley Floor of High Knob Massif
Sunrise Mountain Wave Clouds - Vista 7
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

October 23, 2009
Powell Valley Floor of High Knob Massif
Sunrise Mountain Wave Clouds - Vista 8
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

( End of October 23, 2009 time series ).


October 23, 2011
Remnant Mass of Highcountry
Golden Sunrise In High Knob Massif
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

October 29, 2010
Looking Toward Pine Mountain
A Lonesome Pine On Long Ridge
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.




November

November 3, 2007
Flag Rock Recreation Area
Late Autumn Sunset Approaches
Photograph by Beckie Roberts - © All Rights Reserved.

November 3, 2007
Flag Rock Recreation Area
Glorious Sunset - Fishtail Mountain Wave Clouds
Photograph by Beckie Roberts - © All Rights Reserved.

November 4, 2009
Looking To South Fork Gorge
A Glorious Late Autumn Morning In Powell Valley
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

November 5, 2011
Tennessee Valley Divide
Morning Light Graces Last Colors of Autumn
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

November 8, 2008
Mountain Wave Clouds Near Sunset
The Pinnacle Overlook Above Cumberland Gap
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

November 12, 2009
Powell Valley Overlook
Mountain Waves Above Morning Inversion
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

November 14, 2009 
Powell River Basin of High Knob Landform
Gorgeous Morning Skies Above Silver Leaf 1
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

November 14, 2009
Powell River Basin of High Knob Landform
Gorgeous Morning Skies Above Silver Leaf 2
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

November 14, 2009
( Looking To Wallen Ridge )
Powell River Basin of High Knob Landform
Gorgeous Morning Skies Above Silver Leaf 3
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

November 19, 2011
Brilliant Morning Glow At Bark Camp Lake
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

November 19, 2011
Looking To Eastman Stacks In Kingsport, TN
Morning In The Snowy High Knob Highcountry
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

November 27, 2011
Along The Tennessee Valley Divide
Morning Sunrise of Stacked Wave Clouds
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.




December

December 1, 2009
Frosty Morning Fog On Powell Valley Floor
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

December 1, 2010
High Knob Massif Crest Zone
Approaching A Bitter But Glorious Sunset 1
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

December 1, 2010
High Knob Massif Crest Zone
Approaching A Bitter But Glorious Sunset 2
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

December 1, 2010
High Knob Massif Crest Zone
Approaching A Bitter But Glorious Sunset 3
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.


The Sunset Time Series
( High Knob Massif Crest Zone )

December 1, 2010
Beginning of Sunset
Photograph by Bill Harris - © All Rights Reserved.

( Lenticular Clouds )
Standing Mountain Wave Clouds Forming
Photograph by Bill Harris - © All Rights Reserved.

December 1, 2010
Sunset Nearly Complete
Photograph by Bill Harris - © All Rights Reserved.

Standing Mountain Wave Clouds More Distinct
Photograph by Bill Harris - © All Rights Reserved.

December 1, 2010
Sunset Complete ( Below Mountain Horizon )
Photograph by Bill Harris - © All Rights Reserved.

( Nearly Stationary In Place )
Mountain Wave Clouds Remain Standing
Photograph by Bill Harris - © All Rights Reserved.

( End of December 1, 2010 Sunset Series ).


December 2, 2009
Tennessee Valley Divide
Colorful Edge of Powerful Winds
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

December 5, 2006
High Above Valley Inversion Layers
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Morning Sun Flare At The Pinnacle Overlook
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

December 7, 2009
Powell River Basin of High Knob Landform
Incredible Morning Sky Above Wallen Ridge 1
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

December 7, 2009
Powell River Basin of High Knob Landform
Incredible Morning Sky Above Wallen Ridge 2
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

December 7, 2009
Powell River Basin of High Knob Landform
Incredible Morning Sky Above Wallen Ridge 3
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

December 18, 2007
Tennessee Valley Divide
A Busy Morning Sky ( But Gorgeous )
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

December 28, 2006
Tennessee Valley Divide
Majestically Complex Morning Sky
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

December 28, 2007
Tennessee Valley Divide
Streams of Dramatic Colors & Waves
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

December 31, 2011
Turbulent Wave Clouds In Morning Light
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.


This collection of photographs is a tribute to an awesome mountain landscape and the gifted persistence of the photographers who captured these glorious scenes.

It is a product of my personal will to show this mountain landscape in ways never before seen.

My will to make a positive difference in at least a single life!