Tuesday, April 22, 2014

Spring Emergence - A SLOW Process In 2014


April 18, 2014
Spring Emergence In Duffield Valley
Lower Elevations of High Knob Landform
Large-Flowered Trillium ( Trillium grandiflorum )
Photograph by Bill Harris - © All Rights Reserved.


The emergence of Trilliums are a certain sign 
that the spring season has arrived, and are often coincident with the return of species like the Wood Thrush ( Hylocichla mustelina ) and emergence of butterflies such as the West Virginia White.

Pieris virginiensis )
West Virginia White Butterfly 
Photograph by Bill Harris - © All Rights Reserved.


The West Virginia White is a woodland butterfly that is in trouble due to the invasive spread of an introduced plant species called Garlic Mustard ( Alliaria petiolata ).

April 18, 2014
High Knob Landform
North Fork of Clinch River Watershed
West Virginia White Butterfly ( Pieris virginiensis )
Photograph by Bill Harris - © All Rights Reserved.

Large patches of Trilliums are now blooming in many lower to middle elevation sites across the Upper Tennessee & Upper Cumberland river basins of the High Knob Landform and adjoining basins like that of the Russell Fork River.

April 18, 2014
Upper Tennessee River Basin
Classic Patch of Large-Flowered Trilliums
 Photograph by Bill Harris - © All Rights Reserved.

These are among a vast array of ephemeral wildflower beauties which emerge every spring while mountain forests remain mostly devoid 
of leaves, allowing critical sunlight to reach the forest floor where chemical triggers react to increasing day length & warmer temperatures.

Glorious Spring Renewal - Rhythms Of Life

April 18, 2014
High Knob Landform
Dependent Upon Forest Floor Sunlight
 Photograph by Bill Harris - © All Rights Reserved.

That certainly has been the case this April with mostly bare trees on display across mid-upper elevations and cooler, lower elevation valleys during Easter Weekend.

Elevation 3149 feet
Easter Sunday - April 20, 2014
Morning View From Birch Knob of Pine Mountain
 Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

Emergence of vegetation can vary by up to a month during any given spring, being a couple weeks or more early like in 2012 or a couple weeks late like during 2013 and 2014.

It often depends upon the weather character 
of the first month of meteorological spring.

The Month of March!

( The Warmest March On Record )
Early Spring - Wet & Warm March 2012

Late Spring - Cold & Snowy March 2013

March 2013 - Colder & Snowier Than Average

Many more examples could be cited from climatology, but these are the most recently observed for differences driven by synoptic-scale weather patterns across the USA.

Local variations in spring emergence during any spring, regardless of the synoptic-scale pattern, are driven by both elevation and latitude differences along the High Knob Landform.

HKL Spring Differences: Elevation + Latitude

April 20, 2014
Birch Knob of Pine Mountain
Spectacular Easter Sunday Sunrise
 Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

Regardless of vegetation emergence, my friend and photographer Roddy Addington captured another simply spectacular sunrise from Birch Knob on Easter Sunday.

Rod Addington Photography

April 20, 2014
Cumberland Overthrust Block
Spectacular Easter Sunday Sunrise
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

This section is under construction.  Check back for updates.

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Season Of Transformation In The HKL


April 15, 2014
Wilderness Road State Park
Powell River Basin of High Knob Landform
Majestic Mid-April Contrast Of Spring & Winter
Photograph by Harold L. Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.


Capped by upslope clouds and snow the rugged, cliff-laden expanse of Cumberland Mountain created a dramatic backdrop for photographer Harold L. Jerrell to capture this season of transformation in the High Knob Landform.

Wilderness Road State Park

April 15, 2014
Wilderness Road State Park
Rugged Cumberland Mountain Rises Into Clouds
Photograph by Harold L. Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

Spring comes earlier to valleys around Wilderness Road State Park than it does to the high country of Cumberland Gap National Historical Park ( NHP ), resting above the cloud-shrouded cliffs of these photographs and this panorama.

HKL Spring Differences - Elevation + Latitude
Changes in both latitude & elevation ( up to 3200+ vertical feet ) can make dramatic differences in spring emergence along the
High Knob Landform ( HKL ).

April 15, 2014
Lee County, Virginia
NW Flank of Powell Valley Anticline
Panorama At Wilderness Road State Park
And Cloud-Shrouded Cumberland Gap NHP
Photograph by Harold L. Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

Cumberland Gap National Historical Park

This same great band of cliff and cave forming rocks of Mississippian Age Greenbrier Limestone, that 40 miles ENE rings much of the remnant high country mass of the High Knob Landform, stood boldly out against spring snow and greening valleys of the Powell River Basin in both Lee & Wise counties of southwestern Virginia.

Distance Between Photo Views & High Knob Massif
Google Earth Display of High Knob Landform

In the High Knob Massif this great band of calcareous cliffs mark a climatic change zone and are often capped by clouds and majestic rime during the cold season and fog at warmer times.

Wise County, Virginia
( Where NW-SE Flanks Join )
SE Flank of Powell Valley Anticline
High Knob Massif Archive Photograph
The Same Band of Cliffs Ringing Powell Valley
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

Rod Addington Photography

It should be no surprise that this also seems to be the case 40-50+ miles WSW along this landform, where these same jagged cliffs also mark a zone above which conditions often tend to be much different than below these spectacular outcrops!

April 15, 2014
Wilderness Road State Park
( Cumberland Gap NHP In Distance )
Majesty Of Spring In The Cumberlands
Photograph by Harold L. Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

Eastern Redbud ( Cercis canadensis var. canadensis ) trees are abundant over calcareous soils throughout the Powell & Clinch river watersheds of the Upper Tennessee River Basin.

While colorful Redbud trees are eye-catching, the stars of this early spring emergence show are an array of woodland wildflower beauties like the appropriately named "Spring Beauty." 

April 14, 2014
Lovelady Gap of High Knob Landform
Spring Beauty ( Claytonia virginica )
Photograph by Harold L. Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

Some of these species have not been "officially" documented for Wise, Scott, and Lee counties of the High Knob Landform; however, proof of their existence is in Harold's beautiful photographs.

April 14, 2014
Lovelady Gap of High Knob Landform
Squirrel Corn ( Dicentra canadensis )
Photograph by Harold L. Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

The 1" to 3" of snow and unseasonable cold of 
April 15-16 likely did not diminish these hardy early bloomers, with snow accumulations being mostly above their current blooming elevations.

April 14, 2014
Lovelady Gap of High Knob Landform
Squirrel Corn ( Dicentra canadensis )
Photograph by Harold L. Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

The first Large-flowered Trilliums ( Trillium grandiflorum )
were just beginning to bloom on April 17 in cold air drainages
of the Russell Fork Basin and will likely not peak at mid-upper elevations in the High Knob Massif until late April or May.

April 11, 2014
White Branch Gorge of High Knob Landform
Southern Red Trillium ( Trillium sulcatum )
Photograph by Harold L. Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

A nice photograph featuring 
a variety of different species.

April 11, 2014
White Branch Gorge of High Knob Landform
Rue Anemone ( Thalictrum thalictroides )
Southern Red Trillium Trillium sulcatum )
Yellow Trout Lily ( Erythronium americanum )
Photograph by Harold L. Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.


Huge Conditions Contrast
Differences Along The Mountains
During April 15, 2014

CAM Elevation 2600 feet
April 15, 2014 at 1:22 PM
Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

Elevation played a big role in conditions during April 15 with a general 1-3" of snow accumulating above 2000 feet elevation along and north of the High Knob Massif and Tennessee Valley Divide 
( this included the NW Flank of the High Knob Landform containing upper elevations of Cumberland Gap National Historical Park ).

This can be illustrated by images at 
the same time but in different locations.

April 15, 2014 at 12:13 PM
Approach To Cumberland Gap From Kentucky
Photograph by Harold L. Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

April 15, 2014 at 12:13 PM
Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 15, 2014 at 2:08 PM
Valley Floor At Wilderness Road State Park
Photograph by Harold L. Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

April 15, 2014 at 2:09 PM
Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

Large differences were also observed between 
western and eastern sides of the Appalachians.

April 15, 2014 at 4000 feet
Just SE of Tennessee Valley Divide
Grayson Highlands State Park At 3:02 PM
Image Courtesy of Friends of Grayson Highlands SP

April 15, 2014 at 2650 feet
Just NW of Tennessee Valley Divide
Long Ridge of Sandy Ridge At 2:59 PM
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

April 15, 2014 at 4000 feet
Along Leeward Side of Blue Ridge Mountains
Grayson Highlands State Park At 4:16 PM
Images Courtesy of Friends of Grayson Highlands SP

April 15, 2014 at 4:16 PM
Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 15, 2014 at 4:22 PM
Amid The Great Valley Between The Mountains
Cumberland Square Park In Bristol, Virginia
Live CAM Images Courtesy of Weatherbug

April 15, 2014 at 4189 feet
Along Windward Side of Cumberland Mountains
Eagle Knob of High Knob Massif At 4:55 PM
Photograph by Steve Blankenbecker - © All Rights Reserved.


Climate Statistics
Early-Mid April
( April 1-17, 2014 )

( Lower Elevations of Russell Fork Basin )
Clintwood 1 W - Elevation 1560 feet
Average Daily MAX: 67.8 degrees
Average Daily MIN: 35.5 degrees
April 1-17 MEAN: 51.6 degrees
Highest Temperature: 83 degrees
Lowest Temperature: 23 degrees

( Northern Base of High Knob Massif )
City of Norton - Elevation 2141 feet
Average Daily MAX: 63.7 degrees
Average Daily MIN: 34.0 degrees
April 1-17 MEAN: 48.8 degrees
Highest Temperature: 79 degrees
Lowest Temperature: 19 degrees

( Along the Tennessee Valley Divide )
Nora 4 SSE - Elevation 2650 feet
Average Daily MAX: 63.5 degrees
Average Daily MIN: 42.4 degrees
April 1-17 MEAN: 53.0 degrees
Highest Temperature: 77 degrees
Lowest Temperature: 21 degrees

April 16, 2014 at 12:26 PM
Widespread Snow Across N Slopes of Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

One of the most impressive early-mid April aspects was the general 60 degree temperature change observed during April 13-16, centered around 
April 15 snow, with even greater differences felt when factoring in significant wind chills. 

April 15, 2014 at 4:26 PM
Long Ridge of Tennessee Valley Divide
Apple Blossoms Covered By Spring Snow
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

Wayne Riner Photograph Thoughts...
"Late spring snowfall has covered some of our apple blossoms.  Hopefully, because the blooms 
are still closed, the fruit may not be damaged."

January-March of 2014
Precipitation Departures Across USA

A drier than normal pattern dominated April 1-17 
to continue a trend observed since the beginning of 2014, with the notable local exception of February which had near to above average precipitation.

April 1-15, 2014
Northern Hemisphere
850 MB Air Temperature Composite Anomalies

The first half of April was also warmer than average, despite the shocking temperature plunge that produced accumulating snow across higher elevations on April 15.

April 15, 2014
Cumberland Gap Campground Road
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Photograph by Harold L. Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

A climatologic constant becoming more distinct during early-mid April was the thermal belt, which in the High Knob Massif - Tennessee Valley Divide corridor is that zone within which average night-time temperature MINS are milder than locations both above and below its elevation range.

The 42.4 degree average MIN observed at Nora 4 SSE on Long Ridge ( at 2650 feet ) was 8.4 degrees milder than the 34.0 degree average MIN on the floor of the Norton Valley ( at 2141 feet ) and some 6 degrees milder than the average MIN near the summit level of the High Knob Massif ( at 4200 feet ).

For More Information:
Scroll Down To The Thermal Belt In This Section

Tuesday, April 8, 2014

April Showers & Spectacular Mountain Skies


April 4, 2014
Along The Tennessee Valley Divide
Burst Of Early Evening Color Above Bear Ridge
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

Wayne Riner Photograph Thoughts...
"A passing rain shower left a blast of color.  The red bloom of color on maple trees below the rainbow show that warmer temps have had an effect."

The first maples began budding across lower-middle elevations, below 3000 feet, during mid-late March.


April 5, 2014
Looking West from City of Norton
Majestic April Sunset Over The Cumberlands
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

Following a cold and frequently snowy March, and first month of meteorological spring, a bounty of April showers watered the mountain landscape during this first true week of spring rebirth.

March 2014 And Cold Season 2013-14 Statistics

April 9, 2014
Spring Rebirth Along The Tennessee Valley Divide
Beauty of Bloodroot ( Sanguinaria canadensis )
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

Wayne Riner Photograph Thoughts...
"As we walk the spring woods looking for mushrooms, let's stop to consider the small beauties of early wildflowers hidden amid last autumn's leaves."


Simply spectacular skies 
have been observed.


CAM Elevation 2600 feet
High Knob Massif Webcam
Spectacular Skies
April 7, 2014

Click consecutively on images for motion
  ( Using Keyboard Arrow Keys Is Faster )

April 7, 2014 at 5:56 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 5:56 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 5:57 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 5:57 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 5:58 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 5:58 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 5:59 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 5:59 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:00 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

The interaction of convection and orographics makes this setting more spectacular as lines of wave clouds form & reform above the massif over time amid clouds displaying vertical development.

April 7, 2014 at 6:13 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:14 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:14 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:15 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:15 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:16 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:16 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:42 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:43 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:43 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:44 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:44 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:45 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:45 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:46 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:46 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:47 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:47 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:48 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:48 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:49 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:49 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:50 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:50 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:51 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:52 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:52 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:53 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:53 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:54 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:55 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

A light shower that moved north from the massif over Wise during the next few minutes marked the beginning of an evening with hit-miss showers and local downpours, amid strong & gusty SSE-SW winds, ahead of an April cold front.

April 7, 2014 at 6:55 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:56 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:59 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:59 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:00 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:00 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:01 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:01 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:02 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:02 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:03 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:03 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:04 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:04 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

Reference the following for more spectacular scenes:

Late March & Early April Skies - Winter Statistics

Most Intense Snow Squalls of Winter 2013-14
( Section Still Under Construction )

Dramatic Weather Change & NW Upslope Flow Snow

Dance of Sun-Clouds-Ice And SE Mountain Waves


Pushing Severe Limits
Thunderstorm With Hail Core
Evening of April 3, 2014

A strong thunderstorm that rapidly developed during evening hours of April 3 developed a notable heavy rain & hail core, that locally approached severe limits, as it moved off Pine Mountain and across the Russell Fork Basin of northern Wise, Dickenson, and extreme southern Buchanan counties in southwestern Virginia. 

Click consecutively on images for motion
  ( Using Keyboard Arrow Keys Is Faster )

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 9:46 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 9:50 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 9:55 PM

Note that the thunderstorm developed a small bow shape as it crossed Pine Mountain with increasing reflectivity into the Russell Fork Basin ( 65 dbz at MAX levels during next half hour ).

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:00 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:04 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:09 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:14 PM

Although the highest base reflectivities developed over south-central Dickenson County the largest VIL Density, of around 3.2 grams per cubic meter, occurred south of Clintwood when the thunderstorm was along the 
Wise-Dickenson border.

Nicole M. Belk and Lyle D. Wilson
Using Cell-Based VIL Density - RLX NWSFO

Ted Funk
VIL Density As A Hail Indicator

In this case a fast moving mini-bowed storm ( 274 degrees at 38 knots as 00z NAM Model initialized storm direction/speed ) was pushing into the bounds of severe hail parameters.

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:18 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:23 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:28 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:32 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:37 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:42 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:46 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:51 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:56 PM

For a review of Doppler radar and severe thunderstorms
reference this section from the April 2011 Outbreak:

( Severe Hail To 2.5" Diameter Is Featured )
Beauty & The Beast - Severe Thunderstorm of April 2011


Classic Spring Differences
Night-Time Vertical Temperature Contrast

CAM Elevation 2600 feet
April 10, 2014 at 1:50 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

Beautiful blue skies adorning much of the daylight hours of April 10 followed a frosty cold morning featuring classic temperature differences typical 
of spring-time in the mountains.

A widespread, hard freeze accompanied thick frost in mountain valleys into sunrise of April 10 to contrast with no frost on exposed mid-upper elevation ridges & plateaus.

Morning MINS varied from low-mid 20s in high valleys above 2500-3000 feet to low 30s in valleys at lower elevations below 1500 feet.  This was in contrast to upper 30s to middle 40s reported across mountain ridges and plateaus exposed to mixing by SW winds ( up to 20+ degrees of vertical temp difference ).

The large variation in valley floors = diversity throughout the year in counties along the mountainous Virginia-Kentucky stateline with respect to temperature differences.

Valley Floor Elevations
( In Feet Above Mean Sea Level )

Elkhorn City: 791 feet
( Pike County, Kentucky )

Pineville: 1015 feet
( Bell County, Kentucky )

Middlesboro: 1154 feet
( Bell County, Kentucky )

Grundy: 1170 feet
( Buchanan County, Virginia )

Whitesburg: 1171 feet
( Letcher County, Kentucky )

Harlan: 1191 feet
( Harlan County, Kentucky )

Haysi: 1266 feet
( Dickenson County, Virginia )

Dungannon: 1311 feet
( Scott County, Virginia )

Clinchco: 1411 feet
( Dickenson County, Virginia )

Cumberland: 1440 feet
( Harlan County, Kentucky )

Big Stone Gap: 1488 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

St. Paul: 1492 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

Jonesville: 1530 feet
( Lee County, Virginia )

Jenkins: 1539 feet
( Letcher County, Kentucky )

Pound: 1560 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

Head of Powell Valley: 1650 feet
( SSW of Valley Chapel in Wise County, VA )

Appalachia: 1651 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

Clintwood: 1771 feet
( Dickenson County, Virginia )

Coeburn: 1992 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

Tacoma: 2000 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

Keokee: 2135 feet
( Lee County, Virginia )

City of Norton: 2141 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

*Wise: 2454 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

Bark Camp Lake: 2734 feet
( Scott County, Virginia )

The Glades: 2900 feet
( Scott County, Virginia )

Big Cherry Lake: 3120 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

**Lower Norton Reservoir: 3239 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

**Upper Norton Reservoir: 3318 feet
( Wise County, Virginia ).

High Knob Lake: 3490 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

*The Town of Wise sits upon a plateau but lower sections tend to be much cooler on many nights not subjected to moderate-strong winds & efficient mixing ( verses exposed sites like Lonesome Pine Airport at an elevation of 2684 feet above mean sea level ).

**The Lower & Upper Norton Reservoirs sit amid small mountain coves and are not on true valley floors like those of The Glades, Bark Camp Lake, Big Cherry Lake, and High Knob Lake.

Since valley floors are generally much higher on the Virginia side of the stateline, spring emergence is later and autumn color changes earlier than across the border in Kentucky.

Spring 2010
HKL Spring Differences - Elevation + Latitude

The effect of elevation plus changes in latitude along the High Knob Landform, and between the lofty High Knob Massif and Kentucky foothills, was highlighted on this website in detail during the stormy but glorious Spring of 2010.

Other applicable sections

Spring 2010
Glorious Spring Renewal & March Madness

Autumn 2012
Early Autumn Color Changes In High Knob Massif

Autumn 2009
High Knob Landform - Glorious Autumn Climax