Sunday, June 27, 2010

Flora 3: Ferns of The High Knob Landform


Cinnamon Fern
( Osmunda cinnamomea var. cinnamomea )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

The High Knob Landform

Cinnamon Ferns grow with vigor across the High Knob Massif where wetness rules and they thrive in the cool, mesic basins and wetlands of its highcountry.

Ferns are vascular plants possessing roots, stems, and leaves but no flowers or seeds.  They reproduce by spores, such as seen above on the fertile ( sporangia ripened ), brownish colored frond of this Cinnamon Fern.  

Ferns are a very important part of the rich flora of the High Knob Landform, growing in great abundance across its diverse landscape of mixed acid-based and calcareous stratigraphy.

Cinnamon Fern Living Up To Its Name

Photograph by Richard Kretz - © All Rights Reserved.


Specific Data Sources Include:

State Natural Heritage Programs of Virginia, Kentucky,
and Tennessee.

Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora.

The USDA Plant Database.

The University of Tennessee Herbarium.

Dr. Phillip ( Phil ) Shelton, Ecologist & Naturalist at
The University of Virginia's College in Wise.

Richard Kretz ( Naturalist & Photographer ) The Pinnacle NAP, Hidden Valley WMA & High Knob Landform Biodiversity Studies. Work in Progress.

Browning, W.W., ( 2012 ). Biodiversity and Climatology of the High Knob Landform: With Special Emphasis on the Clinch and Powell River Watersheds of the Upper Tennessee River Basin. Work in Progress.

Alan Cressler ( pro ), Fern & Fern Allies photography archives.


Fern Species

Maidenhair Fern ( Adiantum pedatum )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Frond of Maidenhair Fern
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

*Bradley's Spleenwort ( Asplenium bradleyi )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Mountain Spleenwort ( Asplenium montanum )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Lobed Spleenwort ( Asplenium pinnatifidum )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Ebony Spleenwort ( Asplenium platyneuron )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Ebony-Maidenhair Cross
( Asplenium platyneuron × trichomanes )

Blackstem Spleenwort ( Asplenium resiliens )
Photograph by Richard Kretz - © All Rights Reserved.

Walking Fern ( Asplenium rhizophyllum )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Wallrue Fern ( Asplenium ruta-muraria )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Maidenhair Spleenwort
( Asplenium trichomanes ssp. trichomanes )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Mountain-Lobed Cross
( Asplenium x trudellii )

Southern Lady Fern
( Athyrium filix-femina var. asplenioides )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Sparselobe Grapefern ( Botrychium biternatum )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Grape Fern ( Botrychium dissectum )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Grape Fern ( Botrychium dissectum var. obliquum )
Photograph by Richard Kretz - © All Rights Reserved.

Alabama or Dixie Grapefern
( Botrychium jenmanii )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Matricary Grapefern
( Botrychium matricariifolium )

Bluntlobe Grapefern
( Botrychium oneidense )

Rattlesnake Fern ( Botrychium virginianum )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Alabama Lipfern ( Cheilanthes alabamensis )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Hairy Lipfern ( Cheilanthes lanosa )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Bulblet Bladderfern ( Cystopteris bulbifera )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Fragile Fern ( Cystopteris fragilis )
Photograph by Richard Kretz - © All Rights Reserved.

Lowland Bladderfern ( Cystopteris protrusa )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Upland Brittle Bladderfern
( Cystopteris tenuis )

Hay-Scented Fern
( Dennstaedtia punctilobula )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Silver False Spleenwort ( Deparia acrostichoides )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

The Incredible Silver False Spleenwort
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Glade Fern ( Diplazium pycnocarpon )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

*Mountain Woodfern ( Dryopteris campyloptera )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Spinulose Woodfern
( Dryopteris carthusiana )

*Crested Woodfern ( Dryopteris cristata )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Goldie's Woodfern ( Dryopteris goldiana )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Majesty of Goldie's Woodfern Up Close
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Fancy Fern or Intermediate Woodfern
( Dryopteris intermedia )
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

Intermediate x Marginal Woodfern
( Dryopteris intermedia x marginalis )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Marginal Shield Fern or Marginal Woodfern
( Dryopteris marginalis )
Photograph by Richard Kretz - © All Rights Reserved.

Climbing Fern ( Lygodium palmatum )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Swordfern
Macrothelypteris torresiana )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Swordfern Frond Close Up
Macrothelypteris torresiana )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Sensitive Fern ( Onoclea sensibilis )
Photograph by Richard Kretz - © All Rights Reserved.

Limestone Adderstongue
( Ophioglossum engelmannii )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Cinnamon Fern
( Osmunda cinnamomea var. cinnamomea )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Wondrous Spring Emergence
Cinnamon Fern Fiddle Heads
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Southern Adderstongue ( Ophioglossum vulgatum )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Interrupted Fern ( Osmunda claytoniana )
Photograph by Richard Kretz - © All Rights Reserved.

Royal Fern
( Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Purple Cliffbrake ( Pellaea atropurpurea )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

*Smooth Cliffbrake ( Pellaea glabella ssp. glabella )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Broad Beechfern ( Phegopteris hexagonoptera )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Resurrection Fern
( Pleopeltis polypodioides ssp. michauxiana )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Appalachian Rockcap Fern
( Polypodium appalachianum )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Common Rockcap Fern
( Polypodium virginianum )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Common Rockcap Fern Frond & Sori
Polypodium virginianum )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Rockcap Fern
( Polypodium virginianum complex )

[ Note that common names for the three species of Polypody ferns above have been changed from the previous listing to match the Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora.  Distinction between these three species can be difficult ].

Christmas Fern ( Polystichum acrostichoides )

Photograph by Richard Kretz - © All Rights Reserved.

Fiddle Heads Unfurling
Christmas Fern ( Polystichum acrostichoides )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Bracken Fern ( Pteridium aquilinum )
Photograph by Richard Kretz - © All Rights Reserved.

Western Bracken Fern
( Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum )

New York Fern ( Thelypteris noveboracensis )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Eastern Marsh Fern
( Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Appalachian Bristle or Filmy Fern
( Trichomanes boschianum )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

*Weft Fern
( Trichomanes intricatum )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Appalachian Gametophyte Fern
( Vittaria appalachiana )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Bluntlobe Cliff Fern ( Woodsia obtusa ssp. obtusa )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Appalachian Cliff Fern
( Woodsia scopulina ssp. appalachiana )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Appalachian Cliff Fern - Close Up
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Netted Chain Fern
( Woodwardia areolata )


A Few Fern Allies:
Clubmosses, Horsetails, & Quillworts

Prickly Tree Clubmoss
( Dendrolycopodium dendroideum )

*Hickey's Tree Clubmoss
( Dendrolycopodium hickeyi )

Princess Pine or
Flat-branched Tree Clubmoss
( Dendrolycopodium obscurum )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Southern Ground Cedar or Fan Clubmoss
( Diphasiastrum digitatum )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Deeproot Clubmoss
( Diphasiastrum tristachyum )

Field Horsetail ( Equisetum arvense )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Scouringrush Horsetail
( Equisetum hyemale var. affine )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Unique Beauty of Scouringrush Horsetail
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Shining Clubmoss ( Huperzia lucidula )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Rock Clubmoss or Rock Firmoss ( Huperzia porophila )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Rock Firmoss Hybrid
( Huperzia porophila x lucidula )

Appalachian Quillwort ( Isoetes engelmannii )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Strong Quillwort
( Isoetes valida )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Running Clubmoss ( Lycopodium clavatum )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

Meadow Spike-moss ( Selaginella apoda )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

*Stiff Clubmoss
( Spinulum annotinum )
Photograph by Alan Cressler - © All Rights Reserved.

*Possible to Likely species within the High Knob Landform due to its documentation within one or more adjoining counties.


3 comments:

  1. Beautiful fotos! However, the Dryopteris cristata foto appears to actually be Thelypteris palustris. And the one labeled "Polypodium virginianum complex" is probably P. appalachianum.

    John Knouse
    knousejohn@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  2. Wonderful, enjoyed the pictures very much!

    ReplyDelete