Thursday, July 4, 2019

Mid-Summer 2019_High Knob Massif


Thunderstorms Build Above Big Cherry Lake
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

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A super-soaker of a summer weather pattern rolls forward with drenching thunderstorm rains over the high country, southwest of the High Knob Peak, during afternoon hours of July 3.  Rainfall totals topped 3.50" in parts of Big Cherry Lake basin.


Monthly Total Precipitation
Big Cherry Lake Dam
Elevation 3139 feet

January
6.14"

February
12.50"

March
5.93"

April
6.64"

May
6.75"

June
10.68"

July 1-18
7.16"

2019 Total: 55.80" (M)
 (January 1 to July 18 Period)

12-Month Total: 91.97" (M)

(M): Some missing moisture in undercatch and frozen precipitation, with partial corrections applied for the 24.4 meter (80 feet) tall dam structure where rain gauges are located.

The significance of above totals is not truly realized until looking at the bigger picture, as indicated by a few 2019 totals from across the Old Dominion through July 18.

Virginia & Nation's Capital
2019 Precipitation Totals
(January 1 to July 18 Period)

Charlottesville
22.56"

Lynchburg
22.71"

Roanoke
23.23"

Norfolk
23.62"

Bluefield
23.66"

Blacksburg
24.15"

Washington Dulles
24.27"

Danville
24.93"

Wytheville 1 S
25.09"

Wallops Island
27.48"

Washington National
28.29"

Richmond
29.55"

Burkes Garden
30.34"

Galax
32.69"

Clintwood 1 W
35.71"

Meadows of Dan 5 SW
40.22"

Afternoon of July 3, 2019
Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise

The research CAM at UVA-Wise revealed towering mounds of cumulonimbus clouds, through a small opening in the lower-level overcast, as torrential rain fell upon the high country between the High Knob Lookout Tower and Thunderstruck Knob 
of Powell Mountain. 

Afternoon of July 3, 2019
Towering Mounds of Cumulonimbus Clouds
University Of Virginia's College At Wise


First Half Of Summer
Cool & Wet In High Country

The first half of Summer 2019 has been very wet and seasonally cool in the high country of the 
High Knob Massif.

High Knob Lake Recreation Area
Rosebay Rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum)
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

High Knob Lake – June 2019
Elevation 1074 Meters ( 3523 feet )

Average Daily Maximum: 68.4 degrees
Average Daily Minimum: 54.3 degrees
MEAN: 61.4 degrees
Highest Temperature: 78 degrees
Lowest Temperature: 39 degrees

*University Of Virginia's College At Wise Research Station
National Weather Service calibrated temperature sensor
( Data Period: November 19, 2016 to Present )

The highest temperature observed during June 1 to July 9, and so far during 2019, on the valley floor at High Knob Lake has been 78 degrees.

Coolest day-time temperatures during June were found along highest ridges of the massif, as well as in the sheltered upper portion of the Big Cherry Lake wetland valley, with mid-upper 60s.  Coolest night-time temperatures were within the open expanses of the Big Cherry Lake valley where average temps were around 50 degrees. 

For comparison, the June summary in the Tri-Cities, located 2000 vertical feet lower in elevation, within the Great Valley of northeastern Tennessee.

Month of June 2019
Daily Summary_Tri-Cities, TN

July is typically the hottest month of the year, and mean temperatures have come up significantly from June despite a continuation of Greenland Blocking (discussed below).

High Knob Lake – July 1-14 2019
Elevation 1074 Meters ( 3523 feet )

Average Daily Maximum: 74.4 degrees
Average Daily Minimum: 61.0 degrees
MEAN: 67.7 degrees
Highest Temperature: 78 degrees
Lowest Temperature: 59 degrees

*University Of Virginia's College At Wise Research Station
National Weather Service calibrated temperature sensor
( Data Period: November 19, 2016 to Present )

July 1-14, 2019
Daily Summary_Tri-Cities, TN

General coolness, especially in upper elevations, has been in part due to a record long-lived blocking pattern centered over Greenland associated with a negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation.

April 26 to July 7 in 2019
Record Long-lived Blocking

The strongest cooling effect has locally occurred where orographic forcing has been responsible for lifting air into higher elevations, with a persistent feed of moisture from the tropics supporting above average rainfall amounts (more than 21.00" during the April 26 to July 9 period).

June 1 to June 30 in 2019
850 MB Air Temperature Anomalies

Coolest conditions relative to average, with near to below normal temperatures, were observed during June (above graphic).

April 26 to July 7 in 2019
850 MB Air Temperature Anomalies

The entire April 26 to July 7 period of the current negative NAO phase featured near to above average air temperatures at lower elevations, in particular, with the most widespread cool temp anomalies extending from the southwestern USA across 
the Rockies into Canada. 

*This pattern has been responsible for holding a deep snowpack over the Rockies through June, while ridging aloft associated with the Greenland Block has supported dryness and above normal to record level temperatures across the state of Alaska (with extensive forest fires).


Summer Orographic Clouds

Following a lightning hit that took the research cam offline for a few days, Jim Stewart of the UVA-Wise Computer Science and Mathematics Department engineered a fix just in time for it to capture a simply majestic mix of orographic and convective clouds.  Enjoy a few example frames! 

July 17, 2019 at 8:17 PM
Orographic & Cumulonimbus Clouds Combined
UVA-Wise Weather Research Camera

July 17, 2019 at 8:19 PM
Orographic & Cumulonimbus Clouds Combined
 UVA-Wise Weather Research Camera

July 17, 2019 at 8:20 PM
Orographic & Cumulonimbus Clouds Combined
 UVA-Wise Weather Research Camera

July 17, 2019 at 8:21 PM
Orographic & Cumulonimbus Clouds Combined
 UVA-Wise Weather Research Camera

July 17, 2019 at 8:23 PM
Orographic & Cumulonimbus Clouds Combined
 UVA-Wise Weather Research Camera

July 17, 2019 at 8:25 PM
Orographic & Cumulonimbus Clouds Combined
 UVA-Wise Weather Research Camera

July 17, 2019 at 8:28 PM
Orographic & Cumulonimbus Clouds Combined
 UVA-Wise Weather Research Camera

July 17, 2019 at 8:30 PM
Orographic & Cumulonimbus Clouds Combined
UVA-Wise Weather Research Camera

More dramatic scenes were captured July 18 as 
air was lifted upward into the high country with building and back-building of thunderstorms that dropped more torrential rains.

July 18, 2019 at 6:02 PM
Clouds Being Lifted By Orographics-Convection
UVA-Wise Weather Research Camera

July 18, 2019 at 6:03 PM
Clouds Being Lifted By Orographics-Convection
UVA-Wise Weather Research Camera

July 18, 2019 at 6:04 PM
Clouds Being Lifted By Orographics-Convection
UVA-Wise Weather Research Camera

July 18, 2019 at 6:04 PM
Clouds Being Lifted By Orographics-Convection
UVA-Wise Weather Research Camera

July 18, 2019 at 6:05 PM
Clouds Being Lifted By Orographics-Convection
UVA-Wise Weather Research Camera

July 18, 2019 at 6:05 PM
Clouds Being Lifted By Orographics-Convection
UVA-Wise Weather Research Camera

July 18, 2019 at 6:05 PM
Clouds Being Lifted By Orographics-Convection
UVA-Wise Weather Research Camera

July 18, 2019 at 6:15 PM
Clouds Being Lifted By Orographics-Convection
UVA-Wise Weather Research Camera

 Both 1-Hour and 3-Hour Flash Flood Guidance 
values were exceeded over Big Cherry Lake Basin.


Doppler Composite 1-Hour Rainfall Totals

Locations from the western-southwestern side of the City of Norton through Powell Valley into the high country of the High Knob Massif received the burnt of torrential rains.

July 18, 2019 at 7:28 PM
Towering Clouds In Wake Of Heaviest Rain
UVA-Wise Weather Research Camera

July 18, 2019 at 8:53 PM
Sunset Over A Tropical Mountain Landscape
UVA-Wise Weather Research Camera

This section is under construction.  Please check back.

Tuesday, June 11, 2019

Early Summer 2019_High Knob Massif


June 6, 2019
High Knob Lake
High Knob Lake Recreation Area
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

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A cool and wet pattern has dominated early 
Summer 2019 with the highest temperatures observed through June 12 having reached only 
68 degrees on Eagle Knob and 70 degrees 
at High Knob Lake.

Highest temperatures observed so far in 2019 have reached 75 degrees on Eagle Knob, 76 degrees at High Knob Lake and 78 degrees on the southeast facing slope of High Knob.

*It is interesting to note that these highest readings observed on High Knob and Eagle Knob occurred at the beginning of May while trees were still bare (allowing more incoming solar radiation to heat the ground).

June 6, 2019
High Knob Lake Wetland
Clinch Ranger District_Jefferson National Forest
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

Temperatures dropped into low-mid 40s, with wind chills in the 30s, during morning hours of June 11 and these were not the lowest observed so far nor will they be as chilly as those yet to come.

*Temperatures in high mountain valleys dropped into the upper 30s to lower 40s on June 4, marking the coldest temps observed since May 15 when readings fell into the upper 20s to middle 30s.

June 6, 2019
High Knob Lake Wetland of High Knob Massif
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

Birds were active in the 60s of June 6,
with a few of the observed species including:

Cedar Waxwing
(Bombycilla cedrorum)

**Canada Warbler
(Cardellina canadensis)

*Veery Thrush
(Catharus fuscescens)

***Hermit Thrush
          (Catharus guttatus)

*Least Flycatcher
(Empidonax virescens)

Dark-eyed Junco
(Junco hyemalis)

*Black-and-White Warbler
(Mniotilta varia)

*Louisiana Waterthrush
(Parkesia motacilla)

*Scarlet Tanager
(Piranga olivacea)

Northern Parula
(Setophaga americana)

**Black-throated Blue Warbler
(Setophaga caerulescens)

*Hooded Warbler
(Setophaga citrina)

*Blackburnian Warbler
(Setophaga fusca)

*Magnolia Warbler
(Setophaga magnolia)

*American Redstart
(Setophaga ruticilla)

*Black-throated Green Warbler
(Setophaga virens)

*Ovenbird
(Seiurus aurocapilla)

*Red-breasted Nuthatch
(Sitta canadensis)

*Audubon Climate Threatened Species

** Audubon Climate Threatened 
Priority Bird Species

***Locally rare, and climate threatened 
species found in Big Cherry Lake basin

June 6, 2019
High Knob Lake Cove_Elevation 3500 feet
High Knob Lake Special Biological Area
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

A significant aspect of the High Knob Massif is 
that it provides habitat for many species of birds, or avifauna, which are designated as being threatened by changing climate.  Many of these species are more common in Canada and northern portions of the eastern USA.

These are birds whose large-scale habitats, either 
in their summer breeding grounds, winter resident locations, or both, are threatened by the changing conditions due to global climate change as well as habitat destruction related to human activities 
(in many cases).

June 6, 2019
High Knob Lake
Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia)
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

A general 11.00" to 12.00"+ of rain from May 1 to June 10 have pushed 2019 precipitation totals into the 40.00"to 45.00" range in the high country, with 35.00" to 40.00" at middle elevations along northern flanks of the massif.

June 6, 2019
Beautiful Cove At High Knob Lake
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

This recent pattern has generated days of capping orographic clouds at highest elevations, featuring wind driven fogs, with standing wave clouds and occasional breaks on the leeside (with respect to 
SE flow) over Powell Valley in Wise County.

June 9, 2019
Looking South Toward High Knob
Orographic Clouds Capping High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise CAM

The weather research CAM at UVA-Wise has captured many extraordinary views during 
this wet June pattern.

June 10, 2019
Looking South Toward High Knob
Orographic Clouds Capping High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise CAM

June 10, 2019
Looking South Toward High Knob
Wind Shift To The NW-N With Cold Front
University Of Virginia's College At Wise CAM

June 11, 2019
Looking South Toward High Knob
Dry Air Advection Temporarily Breaks Wetness
University Of Virginia's College At Wise CAM

Dr. Phil Shelton and I did the annual 50-stop 
High Knob Breeding Survey Route between 0540 and 1140 hours on June 12, amid unseasonably chilly conditions, ending up at Bear Rock Heath Barren overlooking the gorge of Little Stony Creek.

June 12, 2019
Bear Rock Heath Barren
Little Stony Creek Gorge of High Knob Massif
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

A couple of notable features this year were noise generated by gusty SE-S winds at upper elevations and by water in mountain valleys and gorges (we barely finished before rain showers began to redevelop yet again).

Daytime temps did not rise above the low-mid 50s at highest elevations, so despite wearing a short-sleeved shirt covered by a thermal, long-sleeved shirt and a UVA-Wise pullover hoodie I had chills and was actually shivering with 3-layers in June!

June 12, 2019
Bear Rock Heath Barren
Turbulent Clouds With Developing Showers
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

Bear Rock Heath Barren features sheer drops along 
both sides of a vertical cliff line, capped by many interesting species of flora, as well as birds, and a nearly 360 degree view of the mountain landscape.

Friday, May 17, 2019

Special Tribute To Addison Stallard


This page is being republished and updated as a tribute to Addison Stallard who passed at the age 
of 99 years on May 17, 2019.

High Knob Massif
Summer In The Head of Powell Valley
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

This photograph is of a great mountain, which rises above a man who knows it in a way unlike anyone alive today. 

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He's lived beneath it nearly his entire life, and portions of the Valley spreading out from it's great mass have been in his family for more than 176 years!

Interior Valley of the High Knob Massif
Morning Fog Covers The Floor of Powell Valley 
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

In years past, this used to be 
the stomping ground of The Man!

This website does not typically recognize the birthdays of
family and friends, although all are treasured and respected.

It is not every day, however, that a friend 99 years old
passes from this Earth with such a strong connection to
the landscape of High Knob.  From Powell Valley to the
Big Cherry wetlands, Addison had a strong and unique
connection to this landscape.

Big Cherry Lake Wetland Valley
 Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

*Originally Published in December 2009

This is a special tribute to:
Addison M. Stallard

I really am not certain, even after all these years, 
of what the "M" stands for.  Perhaps, Methuselah, now that he's turning the BIG 90 on December 7 
in the year 2009.

All I know for certain, is that 
it stands for "My Friend."

Addison is a positive influence in my life and has made the world around him a much better place. That is the greatest tribute which can be bestowed upon anyone, since ultimately it matters not how much money you have or what rank you hold in society.

What matters, plain and simple, is that this world 
( around YOU ) is left a BETTER PLACE for YOU having lived.  Addison is an exemplary example from which we all may learn this most vital principle of human life.

If your life has not been what you wanted it to be, TODAY is a new day!  Everyone has special gifts, whether they are recognized or not, which make them UNIQUE.

Discover those gifts and use them to make the world around YOU a better place.  They may seem so little, but ultimately mean so very much to someone, or something. 

Fire Pink (Silene virginica)
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

Addison and his truly beloved Elizabeth are simply extraordinary folks, as anyone fortunate enough to know them can testify.

Elizabeth lived a while in Lee County, Va., before moving with her family into the Head of Powell Valley in Wise County at the sweet age of 15 
( time has only made her sweeter ).

Addison was not living in "The Valley" at the time Elizabeth initially moved there.  He had moved to another state with his family, after being born and raised in The Valley. 

Upon a return visit to see his Grandparents the beauty of The Mountain, The Valley, and the new "Girl Next Door" could simply never again be let go from his heart! 

Powell Valley Sunset
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

Elizabeth & Addison both have strong, deep roots in the High Knob Landform that extend back to its original settlers, as noted in opening remarks.

The best way for those not knowing this Man, 
and the Mountain above, is to hear him speak in HIS OWN words via a composite of speeches he's given to various groups over the years ( ** ).

**I have selected portions from his speeches which I think will give you a feeling for why I have come to love this man, and to respect his life and wisdom so very much.

In these words you will learn of this wonderful man and his loves for this magnificent mountain landscape and his sweet Elizabeth, whose life ultimately made this tribute possible!

All the words below belong to Addison.  Only a few numbers have been changed to reflect the passing of time since these words were publicly spoken by THE MAN!

The Spoken Words of 
Addison Stallard

Addison Stallard
Photograph by Wayne Browning

Isaac Willis was my great-great-grandfather. Ora Willis Gilly was my great-grandmother and I was privileged to meet her once, when I was very young. 
I remember that occasion very well. 
She lived to be near 95 years of age.

Her son, George Melvin Gilly, was my grandfather. I was born in his home. He influenced my life more than any other individual. He taught me so much. And though he has been gone 62 years, it is the rare day when I do not mention his name. Elizabeth says he will continue to live as long as I live.

Summer Beauty In Powell Valley of Wise County
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

I was born in the Valley and have never been happy when away from it. Though others have had title to most of the land, 
it has seemed like mine.

As a boy, I roamed and hunted over all 
of it without needing to ask permission. 
It belonged in the family!  They hunted 
on our land without asking.

As a boy, I could start at the eastern boundary of the golf course and walk, 
hunt or fish almost to the present quarry, without stepping on land that did not 
belong to a Jones, Willis, Collier, or Gilly.

As one drives up the new four-lane 
U.S. 23 ) highway from Big Stone Gap toward Norton, Powell Mountain is on the right and Stone Mountain ( Little Stone Mountain ) on the left. There are those who will not consciously see either mountain. They will look ahead and think only of their destination. Others will observe the Valley and the mountain beyond, and admire what they see.

View From Powell Valley Overlook
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

Some will stop at the scenic overlook and enjoy the view without knowing who lives 
in the houses below, or anything about the small church. They may not see the little creek which divides the Valley. They will snap their pictures and drive away.

As Elizabeth and I drive up this highway, 
I look at the Valley and then the mountain. I see things which probably no other eyes see.

Small Lady's-slipper Orchids (Cypripedium parviflorum)
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

I see Sheep Gap and Beaver Dam Gap, Beaver Dam spring, where I've camped many times, the Jake place and the 
Jake spring.

As we continue, my mind's eye sees the hickory orchard, with its two-or-three-acre stand of giant Shagbark Hickory trees. A dim path, which may not be visible to other eyes, passes through trees which may no longer be standing, but still are in the corners of my memory.

Pink Lady's-slipper Orchids (Cypripedium acaule)
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

The path winds around above the head of Sugar Camp Hollow where, in years long past, maple sap was boiled down to 
become maple syrup and maple sugar.

I see outlines of what once was Uncle Creed Collier's mountain pasture, now overgrown with trees & bushes. I wonder if the clear, cold spring still bubbles up from between the roots of the large ash tree in the pasture. Probably not; the tree may 
be long gone.

Mixed-Mesophytic Woodlands
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

My eyes pass over Uncle A Collier's cold spring. As mentioned earlier, he owned 
the farm adjacent to my grandparent's property.

As a boy of 7 or 8, I would travel out our 
dug road, past the "far spring," through our woodland and down the steep hill to where he lived. His unmarried daughter, Nannie, had remained with him.

We would sit before the fireplace in 
winter and he would tell me hunting tales. In summer the canopy of wild plum trees 
in his front yard provided a resting place.

When milking time was near, I'd go with him to bring in the cows, then I'd climb the hill, walk through the woods, go past the far spring, out the dug road, wash up and eat my evening meal, usually milk and cornbread. Grandma's molasses 
stack cake or apple pie were always 
there if one desired dessert.

As Elizabeth drives, if I look quickly I can catch a glimpse of my grandparent's home, and if one knows when and where to look, the High Knob Tower ( before it's burning ) may be seen.

Summer Clouds Above High Knob Lookout
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

If we stop at the Powell Valley Overlook, I see much of that which others have seen, except I know something about the people in the houses.

I know the history of the small Presbyterian Church which I helped to build, and in which Elizabeth and I worked so hard for so many years. Our children grew up in that church.

As I think back 76 years, the scene below changes. Green corn fields and blue-gray oat fields appear. Wood smoke drifts up from the cooking fires as farm wives prepare the next meal. I visualize the winding, willow-lined creek with deep holes at every bend, washed out by current fed by spring rains, holes in which a boy could take a cooling dip after he filled his stringer with suckers and redeyes, with an occasional bass if he was lucky.

Big Cherry Lake Wetland Valley
Head of South Fork of Powell River
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

Long ago farmers cut the willows, dredged the creek and straightened it so there would be no more bends and deep holes. And why not? They needed the land for their crops, rather than a place for boys to fish and skinny-dip.

With no bend or deep holes to impede its progress, the water now swiftly goes its way and the creek is little more than a ditch.

The enitre Valley floor is as familiar to me as my own fields. I've tramped every acre, sometimes with bird dogs or Beagle hounds, other times with a fishing pole or just to be roaming about.

As I lift my eyes once more to the mountain I see not an inanimate object as one would see a pyramid or a monument or statue, but I see a living thing! The mountain changes shapes, colors, moods.  She sometimes flexes her muscles and sends large boulders crashing down from the cliffs into the trees below.

Changing Moods In The High Country
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

Her moods are at times bright and cheery, sometimes somber, even brooding. She may don a crystal cap embedded with countless jewels which sparkle with an unbelievable brilliance as she is greeted with a kiss from the morning sun. She may wave and sing as breezes play through her ledges and dance through her treetops. Or she may show anger as high winds lash the trees and 
roar through the cliffs.

Red Trillium (Trillium erectumof Spring
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

In spring the mountain dresses from the bottom up. The green begins outside our window; the maples in the field above show pink. The green slowly creeps up the slopes and when it leaps over the cliffs, our spirits soar with it, for then Spring has truly arrived, and if the Wood Thrush is not already on the hill behind the barn, 
she will not be far behind.

Turk's-cap Lily (Lilium superbumof Summer
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

In summer the mountain is dressed in numerous shades of green. These difference shades show where the tulip poplars, oaks, beeches and lindens grow.

Gorgeous Autumn Maples Of High Knob
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

Fall, of course, brings the most spectacular dress. Color begins at the top, then moves down the slopes and continues until she is magnificently clothed.

Autumn Comes To The High Knob Massif
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

All too soon she disrobes, from the top. Leaves drift down until only gray, barren limbs and the brown forest floor are visible.

Majesty Of Winter In The High Country
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

Occasionally she dresses in a mantle of white --- in my youth, a time to follow the tracks of a fox or mink while unraveling the story of a previous night's search for food and survival, now a time to look from my dining room windows --- and wish for Spring!

Flowering Dogwood (Cornus floridaIn Spring
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

I am intimately acquainted with this mountain. Since early childhood she has drawn me like a magnet. I've touched every tree, rested on every mossy log, I've feasted on her bounty. I've gathered her walnuts and hickory nuts, her pawpaws and wild plums. I've quenched my thirst from her clear, cold springs, picked her berries and, yes, I've taken a few of her trees for my workshop. I've given little in return --- only my admiration and perhaps a special kind of love.

Sunset From High Knob Massif
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

The Valley and the mountain have, in a sense, dominated my life. There have been times past when I gave more of my time to them than to Elizabeth, and sometimes I brought bouquets of wildflowers as penance offerings, or to soften my feelings of guilt, though Elizabeth never complained.

Cove of Big Cherry Lake Wetland Valley
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved

There are those who find it difficult 
to understand the depth of feeling a mountaineer, such as I, can have for 
his land.

Elizabeth and I live in the home we began building when we were married 68 years ago. It is adjacent to my grandparent's farm which we bought many years ago. This land has been in the family more than 150 years ( as of 1993 ).

Three times each day we sit in our dining room, which is mostly glass, and admire 
the beauty around us.

We are blessed!

High Knob Massif
Sunset From Flag Rock Recreation Area
Photograph by Wayne Browning - © All Rights Reserved.