Thursday, July 1, 2010

June 2010: WET & Muggy In The HKL


Hay-Time In The High Knob Landform
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

June 2010 was a wet and muggy month across the High Knob Landform, with cutting hay made difficult by frequent showers and downpours in thunderstorms!

[ A wet and stormy May forced many hay farmers to wait into June to cut; however, a continued stormy pattern allowed for only limited dry stretches.  A total of 18 days of measurable rainfall was observed in the City of Norton, with 22 of the 30 June days having rain within South Fork Gorge of the High Knob Massif ].

June 2010 in the High Knob Landform
Cope's Gray Treefrog ( Hyla chrysoscelis )
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

My friend Gary Hampton, superintendent of the Big Stone Gap Water Plant, measured a rather impressive 9.53" of June rain at Big Cherry Dam,    in the High Knob highcountry, to push the rainfall total there to 16.52" since the beginning of May.

[ A general 15.00-20.00" of rain fell across Big Cherry Basin of the High Knob Massif during May-June, to keep South Fork of the Powell River overflowing the Dam's spillway every day!

However, do not go expecting to find alot of gushing whitewater on the South Fork, as near Cracker Neck it is essentially what one would call "bone dry" at the dawn of July.

This due to sinking of water into the subterranean within well developed karst systems.  The bottom line, being to never throw anything into Valley sinkholes if you want all this fresh, clean water that is sinking from the highcountry to keep its pure nature as it supplies your water table! ].


Big Cherry Dam of High Knob Massif
Monthly Precipitation Totals
Elevation: 3120 feet

2010
*January: 6.25"

*February: 4.25"

*March: 4.50"

April: 3.78"

May: 6.99"

June: 9.53"

2010 Total: 35.30" ( M )

7-Month Total: 46.80" ( M )

12-Month Total: 79.63" ( M )

( * ) - Denotes data loss during the harsh 2009-10 winter, when the NWS rain gauge froze and busted.

( M ) - Denotes that the actual total fall was greater than rain gauge amounts due to a combination of evaporation between hand-measurements and losses amid wind & sub-freezing conditions.

Secluded Mountain Cove - June 2010
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

A general 30.00" to 40.00" of total precip have accumulated during 2010 across wetter parts of the High Knob Massif, from upper Cove Creek Basin across Big Cherry Basin into the High Knob Lake Basin, Benges Basin, and Clear Creek Basin ( with 45.00" to 50.00" during the past 7-months, and more than 80.00" during the past year, across this upslope corridor ).

These above precipitation totals not including any of the significant secondary moisture contributions from fog drip and rime deposition on trees, within favored sections such as Big Cherry Basin ( a most important point, since these add greatly to the annual moisture budgets of both living and non-living entities ).

Powell Valley of HKL - June 8, 2010
Canada Goose ( Branta canadensis )
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

A flock of Canadian Geese decided a plowed Powell Valley field was a good place to stop and rest ( my friend Roddy Addington saying that they acted tired ), on a rare day free of rain ( only 2 days in the June 1-17 period did not have measurable rainfall in this area ).

The Beautiful Canada Goose - June 8, 2010
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

May & June wetness made up for a below average precip pattern during February-March, despite a bounty of snowfall.

Lifting Off From The Valley Floor - In Formation!
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

Abundant June wetness, in specific, held temperatures down by day, relative to what they would have been over dry ground, with increased cloudiness, showers, and booming thunderstorms.

High Knob Massif Area
Highest June Temperatures 
Observed By Elevation
( Approximate Ranges )

> 90 degrees...below 1500 feet
85 to 90 degrees...1600 to 2600 feet
80 to 85 degrees...2700 to 3500 feet
75 to 80 degrees...above 3500 feet

No days during June officially reached 90 degrees within Norton, Wise, and Clintwood ( although the combination of heat and humidity made it feel hotter ).


June 2010 Climate Statistics

Majestic Lily - Powell Valley Overlook - June 21
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

Clintwood 1 W - Elevation 1560 feet
Average Max: 82.8 degrees
Average Min: 60.7 degrees
Mean: 71.8 degrees
Highest Temperature: 89 degrees
Lowest Temperature: 51 degrees
Rainfall: 6.09"
2010 Precipitation: 25.00"

City of Norton - Elevation 2141 feet
Average Max: 81.9 degrees
Average Min: 58.7 degrees
Mean: 70.3 degrees
Highest Temperature: 88 degrees
Lowest Temperature: 50 degrees
Rainfall: 5.68"
2010 Precipitation: 29.05"

Nora 4 SSE - Elevation 2650 feet
Average Max: 80.1 degrees
Average Min: 63.9 degrees
Mean: 72.0 degrees
Highest Temperature: 87 degrees
Lowest Temperature: 55 degrees
Rainfall: 3.96"
2010 Precipitation: 24.02"

In the High Knob highcountry, June 2010 temp means varied from 70s by day to mid-upper 50s by night within the mountain basins ( above 2700 feet ).  Mean June temps being mostly in the 60s from the crestlines downward into basins lying above 2400 to 2700 feet in elevation.

Powell Valley Overlook - June 21, 2010
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

Regional June Climate Statistics

Jackson, Ky., NWSFO - Elevation 1365 feet
Average Max: 84.3 degrees
Average Min: 66.4 degrees
Mean: 75.4 degrees
Highest Temperature: 90 degrees
Lowest Temperature: 59 degrees
Rainfall: 5.60"
2010 Precipitation: 25.94"

London, Kentucky - Elevation 1211 feet
Average Max: 86.9 degrees
Average Min: 66.4 degrees
Mean: 76.6 degrees
Highest Temperature: 93 degrees
( 7 days at or above 90 degrees )
Lowest Temperature: 56 degrees
Rainfall: 3.85"
2010 Precipitation: 22.11"

Buckhorn Lake SP, Kentucky - Elevation 936 feet
Average Max: 88.2 degrees
Average Min: 65.1 degrees
Mean: 76.6 degrees
Highest Temperature: 95 degrees
( 14 days at or above 90 degrees )
Lowest Temperature: 57 degrees
Rainfall: 3.86"
2010 Precipitation: 21.09"

Tri-Cities, Tennessee - Elevation 1525 feet
Average Max: 87.3 degrees
Average Min: 64.0 degrees
Mean: 75.7 degrees
Highest Temperature: 93 degrees
( 13 days at or above 90 degrees )
Lowest Temperature: 54 degrees
Rainfall: 2.96"
2010 Precipitation: 15.66"

Knoxville, Tennessee - Elevation 981 feet
Average Max: 90.4 degrees
Average Min: 69.4 degrees
Mean: 79.9 degrees
Highest Temperature: 96 degrees
( 20 days at or above 90 degrees )
Lowest Temperature: 59 degrees
Rainfall: 1.25"
2010 Precipitation: 19.85"

Richmond, Va., ( State Capitol ) - Elevation 167 feet
Average Max: 92.2 degrees
Average Min: 70.0 degrees
Mean: 81.1 degrees
Highest Temperature: 102 degrees
( 19 days at or above 90 degrees )
Lowest Temperature: 60 degrees
Rainfall: 0.82"
2010 Precipitation: 17.62"

The above June rainfall total for Richmond is no mistake, only 0.82" were measured during the month.

In fact, much of Virginia and adjoining portions of the Great Valley & Blue Ridge provinces are now abnormally dry and slipping into drought ( denoted by yellow on the Drought Moniter ).


2010
Precipitation Statistics
Virginia & District of Columbia

June 12, 2010
Swift Creek Reservoir - Near Richmond, VA
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

The following lists highlighting rainfall totals for June, May + June combined, and the 2010 precip total through the end of June.

Washington D.C. National Airport
June: 1.87"
May-June: 4.27"
2010: 13.60"

Dale Enterprise
June: 1.10"
May-June: 3.70"
2010: 13.98"

Boston 4 SE
June: 3.10"
May-June: 7.40"
2010: 14.70"

Edinburg
June: 2.77"
May-June: 5.23"
2010: 15.15"

Staunton Sewage Plant
June: 1.76"
May-June: 5.17"
2010: 16.14"

Luray 5 E
June: 2.90"
May-June: 6.18"
2010: 16.77"

Covington Filter Plant
June: 1.63"
May-June: 5.68"
2010: 16.79"
( 1 missing day in March )

Gathright Dam
June: 1.17"
May-June: 6.22"
2010: 16.88"

Richmond
June: 0.82"
May-June: 3.44"
2010: 17.62"

James River - July 3, 2010
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

Wallops Island
June:  1.63"
May-June: 3.63"
2010: 17.89"

Charlottesville
June: 1.54"
May-June: 5.11"
2010: 17.91"

Washington D.C. Dulles Airport
June: 1.29"
May-June: 6.71"
2010: 18.00"

Blacksburg
June: 1.19"
May-June: 6.08"
2010: 18.10"

Buena Vista
June: 3.30"
May-June: 5.86"
2010: 18.13"

Abingdon 3 S
June: 3.64"
May-June: 6.79"
2010: 18.57"
( 3 missing days during year )

Mendota 1.6 SW
June: 3.99"
May-June: 7.23"
2010: 18.61"

Roanoke
June: 1.28"
May-June: 6.63"
2010: 18.62"

Williamsburg Airport
June: 1.10"
May-June: 4.82"
2010: 19.09"

Historic Williamsburg Virginia - Summer 2010
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

Christiansburg
June: 2.63"
May-June: 7.77"
2010: 19.17"
( 1 missing day in March )

Wytheville 1 S
June: 3.90"
May-June: 6.63"
2010: 19.44"
( 1 missing day in May )

Danville
June: 2.20"
May-June: 6.22"
2010: 20.25"

Bland
June: 4.11"
May-June: 7.98"
2010: 20.34"
( 1 missing day in May / 1 in June )

Glasgow 1 SE
June: 0.88"
May-June: 3.87"
2010: 20.90"

Lebanon
June: 4.18"
May-June: 8.50"
2010: 21.11"

Saltville 1 N
June: 5.37"
May-June: 10.22"
2010: 21.68"
( 2 missing days March / 2 missing days June )

Richlands
June: 6.85"
May-June: 10.75"
2010: 22.20"

Holcomb Rock ( Bedford County )
June: 1.57"
May-June: 6.37"
2010: 22.53"
( 1 missing day in May )

Lynchburg
June: 3.13"
May-June: 7.69"
2010: 22.85"

Norfolk
June: 3.76"
May-June: 8.36"
2010: 23.39"

Meadows of Dan 4.5 SW
June: 2.64"
May-June: 7.92"
2010: 23.87"
( 1 day missing during May )

Nora 4 SSE
June: 3.96"
May-June: 12.67"
2010: 24.02"

Clintwood 1 W
June: 6.09"
May-June: 11.85"
2010: 25.00"

Grundy
June: 7.63"
May-June: 13.65"
2010: 25.22"

North Fork of Pound Dam
June: 6.88"
May-June: 12.86"
2010: 25.39"

Breaks Interstate Park
June: 6.39"
May-June: 11.59"
2010: 25.60"

Woolwine 4 S
June: 3.01"
May-June: 7.04"
2010: 26.11"
( 2 missing days in May )

Appalachia Lake Water Plant
June: 5.68"
May-June: 11.78"
2010: 26.12"

Big Stone Gap WP ( South Fork Gorge )
June: 6.12"
May-June: 12.25"
2010: 26.84"

Burkes Garden
June: 4.51"
May-June: 11.16"
2010: 27.07"

Robinson Knob of High Knob Massif
June: 5.09"
May-June: 10.61"
2010: 27.53" ( M )

Norton Water Plant
June: 5.68"
May-June: 14.28"
2010: 29.05"

Big Cherry Dam of High Knob Massif
June: 9.53"
May-June: 16.52"
2010: 35.30" ( M )

Powell Valley of High Knob Massif - June 21
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.


2010
Precipitation Statistics
West Virginia Karst Belt & Mountains

White Sulphur Springs
June: 2.61"
May-June: 5.72"
2010: 16.52"

Union 3 SSE
June: 3.60"
May-June: 7.26"
2010: 16.75"

Elkins
June: 3.55"
May-June: 8.15"
2010: 16.77"

Alderson
June: 1.56"
May-June: 5.84"
2010: 16.79"

Lewisburg 3 N
June: 2.84"
May-June: 6.57"
2010: 18.50"

Glady 1 N
June: 3.74"
May-June: 8.15"
2010: 19.54"
( 3 days missing during February )

McRoss 3 E
June: 3.65"
May-June: 9.92"
2010: 24.31"

Marlinton
June: 1.92"
May-June: 11.47"
2010: 25.53"

Snowshoe Mountain
June: 5.32"
May-June: 14.21"
2010: 36.03"
( 4 missing days during year )


2010
Precipitation Statistics
Eastern Tennessee

Gray 1.5 E
June: 2.56"
May-June: 4.95"
2010: 15.00"
( 4 days missing during year )

Tri-Cities
June: 2.96"
May-June: 5.54"
2010: 15.66"

Jonesborough 3.7 N
June: 1.92"
May-June: 6.05"

Kingsport
June: 3.34"
May-June: 7.15"
( 1 missing day in June )

Kingsport 4.3 SW
June: 3.51"
May-June: 7.02"

Knoxville
June: 1.25"
May-June: 5.47"
2010: 19.85"

Chattanooga
June: 2.24"
May-June: 7.62"
2010: 23.37"

Crossville
June: 3.11"
May-June: 9.76"
2010: 25.99"

Monterey
June: 5.09"
May-June: 12.99"
2010: 31.09"
( 1 day missing during March )

Mount LeConte
June: 7.41"
May-June: 14.14"
2010: 35.37"
( 2 days missing February / 1 day missing April )

Little Stone Mountain Gap - High Knob Massif
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.


2010
Precipitation Statistics
Western North Carolina

Banner Elk
June: 2.45"
May-June: 5.40"
2010: 23.71"
( 2 days missing during May )

Beech Mountain
June: 3.19"
May-June: 6.70"
2010: 25.18"

Grandfather Mountain:
June: 1.97"
May-June: 6.44"
2010: 35.17"

Mount Mitchell
June: 4.68"
May-June: 9.67"
2010: 36.21"


( Missing days denoted above may or may not have had any measurable precipitation ).


A Classic June Day In 2010

Rainbows Above The High Ridges - June 21
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

Wayne Riner...
"The day had been the hottest of the summer season on Long Ridge ( 85 degree MAX ).  Just before sunset a storm with rain and high winds came from the northwest.  Note when a double rainbow occurs, the colors are reversed!"

The stormy pattern of May and June, with    its mean western component air flows, favored the west-northwest facing slopes and crestlines along and adjacent to the High Knob Landform and Tennessee Valley Divide.

This included some locations downstream, as storms would build up over them and drift to their lee ( e.g., a drift into the Castlewood to Hansonville section of Russell County of the Clinch River Basin was common in June ).

Sunset Opposite The Rainbows - June 21, 2010
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

Wayne Riner...
"After taking a picture of the rainbows, I turned around to see the color of the setting sun."

Wow, what a beauty!


Historical Temperature Climatology For The Month
Of July

Summer 2010
Seadoo Surfin' - John Flannagan Lake
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

A radical change in the weather pattern opened July 2010, with a cooler and much drier air mass invading the mountains from Canada.

Cliff Island - John Flannagan Lake
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

Morning mins on July 2 dipped to 44 degrees in Norton, and as low as upper 30s to lower 40s amid the colder mountain basins from the High Knob Massif to Burkes Garden.  What a way to open July, with a true and sincere chill felt for hikers, campers, and residents of these higher elevations!

Such chilliness should really be no surprise as I have recorded frost every month of the year within the High Knob Massif area, with it also being well documented in the Burkes Garden Basin.

Bow Ahead - John Flannagan Lake
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

Although summer frost would be a true rarity outside of these favored mid to upper elevation cold pockets, July is the only month of the year to not have a temperature drop below 40 degrees at the relatively well exposed location of the Wise weather station ( which for most of its record period was located upon a hill on the campus of The University of Virginia's College in Wise, where nocturnal temps tend to be milder than in surrounding valleys ruled by cold air drainage ).

Top Ten Coldest July Nights On Record
Wise 1 SE and Wise 3 E
Elevation: 2549 to 2560 feet
Record Period: 1955-2009

40 degrees...July 10, 1963
42 degrees.....July 5, 1963
42 degrees....July 11, 1963
43 degrees......July 9, 1961
43 degrees....July 15, 1967
43 degrees....July 27, 1962
44 degrees......July 6, 1964
44 degrees......July 7, 1972
44 degrees.....July 16, 1967
45 degrees.......July 4, 1961

In order to get a true feel for how cold it can get amid the favored cold air drainage basins of mid-upper elevations, its best to look at the long data period of Burkes Garden ( 114 years ).

Top Ten Coldest July Nights On Record
Burkes Garden Basin
Elevation: 3300 feet
Record Period: 1896-2009

31 degrees...July 16, 1926
34 degrees.....July 2, 1988
34 degrees....July 23, 1947
34 degrees....July 27, 1911
35 degrees....July 10, 1961
36 degrees......July 1, 1988
36 degrees......July 3, 1988
36 degrees......July 5, 1963
36 degrees......July 7, 1983
36 degrees....July 20, 1909

Temperatures have dipped below freezing every month of the year at some point amid the 114 year record period of Burkes Garden, to illustrate that the colder mountain basins can indeed have frost during any month ( sub-freezing temps having occurred at the Wise NWS station during every month but July & August ).


The HEAT of Summer
In The Mountains

Lined Up - John Flannagan Lake
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

With elevations as low as 1020 feet above sea level on the surface of Norris Lake in Tennessee, the southwest end of the High Knob Landfom can get truly hot ( especially when adding in humidity ).

But heat is relative, and when Wise officially cracks 90 degrees in summer its blazing!

Truly, for the official NWS station once went 13 years, from 1967-1979, without breaking 90 degrees at its elevation of 2549 feet above sea level.

Top Ten Hottest July Days On Record
Wise 1 SE and Wise 3 E
Elevation: 2549 to 2560 feet
Record Period: 1955-2009

93 degrees...July 15, 1995
93 degrees...July 16, 1988
92 degrees.....July 8, 1988
92 degrees...July 14, 1966
92 degrees...July 23, 1983
91 degrees.....July 9, 1988
91 degrees...July 17, 1988
91 degrees...July 31, 1999
90 degrees.....July 7, 1993
90 degrees...July 10, 1988

[ Note that the official National Weather Service Cooperative Station in Wise typically runs a little cooler by day than does the Lonesome Pine Airport ( LNP ) AWOS, which is the main source used by media outlets for current Wise conditions ].

The hottest temperature ever observed in the 55 year record period of Wise reached 94 degrees on August 18, 1988.  It is safe to say that upper elevations within the High Knob Massif, above 3000 feet, have not broken 90 degrees ( by official measuring standards ) during the past 55 years.

At 4179 feet above mean sea level on Eagle Knob of the High Knob Massif, it is relatively rare for summer maximums to rise above 80 degrees.

The highest temperature observed during the past decade reaching only 84 degrees.

[ The exposure of the Eagle Knob weather station being good such that shady northern slopes, amid adjacent upper elevations, tend to actually run cooler on many sunny days ].

Important aspects which act to hold summer maximums down being due to more than sheer elevation alone, with abundant cloudiness and the typically wet climate of the massif area working to suppress daytime temperatures.

[ This being exemplified by the highest max of 84 degrees on Eagle Knob, which by no coincidence occurred during the driest year on record in 2007 when "only" 40.00-50.00" of precipitation fell across the High Knob Massif ( 45.00-50.00" amid the wetter locations ).

While that was still above the annual mean for Virginia,    it was abnormally dry for the massif and was associated with less cloudiness and a notable reduction in the number of days with rainfall.  Very important, since the High Knob Massif tends to be the cloudiest area in Virginia ].

Going back further in time, before the mid 1950s, hotter conditions likely occurred during a single decade.  The 1930s, which hold 9 of the top 10 hottest July days on record during the past 114 years in Burkes Garden!

Top Ten Hottest July Days On Record
Burkes Garden Basin
Elevation: 3300 feet
Record Period: 1896-2009

97 degrees...July 28, 1930
96 degrees.....July 9, 1930
96 degrees...July 16, 1954
95 degrees...July 12, 1930
95 degrees...July 14, 1930
95 degrees...July 23, 1934
94 degrees.....July 7, 1930
94 degrees...July 21, 1934
94 degrees...July 25, 1938
94 degrees...July 26, 1930

The possible notable exception to the magnitude of heat within the High Knob Massif being due to the fact that it is much wetter than Burkes Garden, on average, such that some of the hotter days could have been tempered by more cloudiness and rain.

Example - Early July 2010
( Updated: July 6, 2010 )

A perfect example of the impact of dry ground can be obtained by looking at July 1-4, in which cooler and drier air invaded the region but its full impact was never really felt over the dry ground in the Great Valley of Tennessee.

July 1-4, 2010

City of Norton - Elevation 2141 feet
Average Max: 77.2 degrees
Average Min: 47.0 degrees
Mean: 62.1 degrees

Tri-Cities, Tennessee - Elevation 1525 feet
Average Max: 87.5 degrees
Average Min: 58.5 degrees
Mean: 73.0 degrees

This observed difference between Norton and the Tri-Cities is huge during early July, with part of the difference certainly being forced by the dryness of the TRI ( 15.66" in 2010 verses 29.05" in Norton ).

[ Dry ground at the TRI ( Tri-Cities weather station ) limiting cloud formation by day and yielding little moisture for the sun to evaporate, allowing more solar energy to heat the ground and overlying air, with cold air drainage at night in low dewpoint air over the High Knob Massif providing for chilly nights in Norton ( the evening of July 4 being by far the warmest in Norton, with increased humidity and lingering clouds ) ].

A real-time example of differences generated by moisture and a lack of moisture, can be illustrated by afternoon hours of July 6 in which abundant cloudiness formed above the High Knob Massif relative to drier locations such as the Blacksburg-Radford area of southwestern Virginia and the    TRI area of northeastern Tennessee.

NASA Visible Satellite Image at 12:45 PM July 6, 2010

Note these locations on the following image series.

NASA Visible Satellite Image at 1:45 PM July 6, 2010

 NASA Visible Satellite Image at 2:15 PM July 6, 2010

NASA Visible Satellite Image at 2:45 PM July 6, 2010

NASA Visible Satellite Image at 3:02 PM July 6, 2010

NASA Visible Satellite Image at 3:15 PM July 6, 2010

[ Note persistent cumulus above the Big Cherry Basin and adjacent N-NW slopes of the High Knob Landform in Wise-Lee counties, verses the lack of cloud formation above the parched ground within the Blacksburg-Radford and TRI areas ].

The above series of images showing abundant cumulus forming below an inversion aloft, and over the regions which had enough moisture to generate clouds ( the inversion aloft preventing them from growing vertically into showers and storms ).

What this series does not show, is the impact such clouds have on surface temperatures and daily maximums!

[ At Clintwood 1 W the July 6 MAX reached 88 degrees.  At one point the temperature surged to 87 degrees, but subsequent cloud formation dropped it back to 81 degrees.  Such drops ultimately lower the MAX, with the eventual 88 degree maximum following a period of continuous sunshine after clouds broke ].

Early Summer Beauty - John Flannagan Lake
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

Although Burkes Garden had some missing days during the 1930s, it appears that the decade was only somewhat drier than "normal" in this region with a decadal average of 40.45" per year in Burkes Garden ( -4.72" below their 85 year mean ).

[ While it is not known how many of their missing days had measurable precipitation, it is likely that the decadal average for the 1930s was greater than the raw 40.45" value listed for Burkes Garden ].

Pennington Gap in Lee County has the longest local data period in the High Knob Landform, with complete records starting in 1932.  The 1932-1939 precip mean was 49.65", or actually 0.44" above
their long-term accepted yearly average.

[ The High Knob Massif would have likely had much more precipitation, with 2009 ( for example ) having 54.68" in Burkes Garden ( no missing data ), 56.48" in Pennington Gap ( missing data during July and December ), and 81.34" at Big Cherry Dam ( missing data during the year ) ].

Either way, without any air conditioning in most locations it was likely plenty HOT for everyone ( as were the early 1950s ) and perhaps, just perhaps, even the summit level of the High Knob Massif cracked the rarefied 90 degree mark!

Night Comes To The High Ridges
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

I just love a glorious ending!

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