Friday, July 13, 2012

July 2012 - Fireworks & Water!!!


July 4, 2012
Independence Day Fireworks In Clintwood
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

The High Knob Landform

( Featuring Sunrise-Sunset Series )
The Colors of Heaven's Glory

The beauty of Independence Day was captured by my friend and photographer Roddy Addington who attended the annual fireworks display in the town of Clintwood.

Annual Fireworks Display - July 4, 2012
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.


Mother Nature had already put on her convective dance during the day, with the High Knob Massif acting as the anchor for an array of hit-miss, backbuilding showers and downpours in thunderstorms.

This continued the active period that opened July 2012

July 2012 Opens Majestic, Stormy & Hot



Independence Day Fireworks
Doppler Time Series of Mother Nature

From start to finish the following time series documents a mysterious, fascinating, and also beautiful dance that has played out since before any radar, or human, was present in this ancient mountain landscape.  During all that time, most amazingly, it has likely never played out in exactly this manner; although, backbuilding and forcing of convection in the High Knob Massif area is well documented, no weather days ( like snowflakes ) are exactly the same.  Such is the nature of convection and orographics amid complex topography!

[ That is one reason I have chosen to extract frames from Doppler Loops and generate panels that you can click through at your own speed, stopping to hopefully look at many fascinating details which are revealed during these events in this area ].

July 4, 2012
NAM Model Initialization At 8:00 AM

Such a scenario could be expected given low-level southerly inflow into the massif area at the surface beneath a mean NW flow in the 850-300 MB layer, supporting low-level convergence on the high terrain and a drift into and off it to the southeast.  That has been documented many, many times in the past, but specific details and results are always different in how it all plays out.


Doppler Radar Time Series
( Click consecutively on images to put into motion )

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:02 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:12 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:21 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:25 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:29 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:33 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:38 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:42 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:46 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:51 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:56 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:00 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:04 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:08 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:13 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:17 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:21 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:25 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:30 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:34 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:38 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:42 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:47 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:51 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:55 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:59 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:04 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:08 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:12 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:16 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:21 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:25 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:29 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:33 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:38 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:42 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:46 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:50 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:55 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:00 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:04 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:08 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:12 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:17 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:21 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:25 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:29 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:34 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:38 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:42 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:46 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:51 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:55 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:59 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:03 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:08 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:12 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:16 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:20 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:25 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:29 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:33 PM - July 4, 2012

Doppler Estimated Rainfall For July 4, 2012

A significant area with Doppler estimated 1.00" to 2.00"+ rainfall amounts covered a large portion of Scott County, and localized places amid adjoining counties, in the wake of this convective dance of orographically forced formation and reformation of Independence Day showers and downpours in thunderstorms.

The next day would prove much different!

Independence Day Fireworks Of 2012
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.


Mesoscale Convective System
of July 5, 2012

Unlike orographically forced storms of July 4, the following day brought a major mesoscale convective system ( MCS ) into the famed Mountain Empire.  While this did not evolve into a derecho like June 29, it did generate a significant amount of wind damage and power outages 
( compounding problems for those still without electricity or having just gotten it back from the major June 29 event ).

( Includes The June 29 Derecho )
Summer 2012: From Chilly To Extended HEAT

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:28 PM - July 5, 2012

The MCS started developing around mid-day along and southwest of the I-64 corridor in West Virginia with rapid expansion west across northeastern Kentucky where the early afternoon air mass was becoming very unstable ( LI to -10 and MUCAPE to 4000 J/kg ).

Surface Based Lifted Index At 1:00 PM

Surface Based Lifted Index At 2:00 PM

Most Unstable CAPE At 1:00 PM

Most Unstable CAPE At 2:00 PM

The MCS will be documented as it pushed across the Upper Tennessee River Basin and adjacent areas of far southwestern Virginia, southeastern Kentucky and extreme northern Tennessee.


Doppler Time Series

( Click consecutively on images to put into motion )

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:23 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:27 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:31 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:36 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:41 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:45 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:49 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:51 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:58 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:02 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:06 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:11 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:15 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:19 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:23 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:28 PM - July 5, 2012


Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:32 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:36 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:40 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:45 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:49 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:53 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:57 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:02 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:06 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:10 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:14 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:19 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:23 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:27 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:31 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:36 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:40 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:45 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:49 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:53 PM - July 5, 2012


Zooming Out 

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:58 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:02 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:06 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:10 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:15 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:19 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:23 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:27 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:32 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:36 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:40 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:44 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:49 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:53 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:01 PM - July 5, 2012

Doppler Estimated Rainfall At 8:01 PM - July 5, 2012


Following a steamy break in activity during July 6 some isolated convection fired over the High Knob Landform, southwest of the City of Norton, and along the Black mountains during afternoon hours of July 7 ( very isolated in Clinch-Holston valleys ).

Doppler Estimated Rainfall At 7:00 PM - July 7, 2012


Day Of Storms & Heavy Rain
High Knob Massif - Tennessee Valley Divide
( July 8, 2012 )

A relative lull in wake of the MCS of July 5 was followed by explosive thunderstorm development amid unseasonable July 8 heating, with action first developing along the Tennessee Valley Divide in southern Dickenson County before building southwest into the High Knob Massif.


Doppler Time Series
( Afternoon Action )

Click consecutively on images to put into motion

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:43 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:51 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:55 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:00 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:08 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:17 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:25 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:30 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:38 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:47 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:51 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:56 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:00 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:05 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:09 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:13 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:17 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:22 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:26 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:30 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:34 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:39 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:43 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:47 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:51 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:56 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:00 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:04 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:08 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:13 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:17 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:21 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:25 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:30 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:34 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:38 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:42 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:46 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:51 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:55 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:00 PM - July 8, 2012

By 5:00 PM on July 8 a general 1.00" to 3.00"+ of Doppler estimated rainfall had occurred from Big A Mountain southwest along the Tennessee Valley Divide into the High Knob Massif, with localized heavy amounts in adjacent places.    

Doppler Estimated Rainfall At 5:00 PM - July 8, 2012

A broad scan of regional rainfall estimates revealed that this was likely only the beginning, with a new area of heavy rains developing  along the Ohio River with a line of developing storms.

Regional View of Rainfall
Doppler Estimated Rainfall At 5:00 PM - July 8, 2012

The storms were already putting out a distinct outflow boundary at 5:00 PM over Kentucky, which would prove to play a key role in explosive thunderstorm development ( once again ) as it pushed south into the higher terrain of the Cumberland Overthrust Block.

Regional Doppler Scan
Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:00 PM - July 8, 2012

This would generate another natural display of fireworks with vivid lightning, booming thunder, and torrential downpours of rain.

July 4, 2012
Clintwood, Virginia
Man-made Explosions - Independence Day Fireworks
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.


Doppler Time Series
( Evening Action )

By 7:34 PM the outflow boundary was pushing into northern Wise & Dickenson counties and was near a Flat Gap to McClure line ( this is the same outflow boundary noted at 5:00 PM on the regional Doppler scan ).

Click consecutively on images to put into motion

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:34 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:38 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:42 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:47 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:51 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:55 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:59 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:04 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:08 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:12 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:16 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:21 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:25 PM - July 8, 2012

As the outflow boundary pushed into the high terrain, explosive thunderstorm development occurred just behind it from the Wise Plateau into the High Knob Massif during the 8:30 to 9:00 PM period of July 8 as air was forced to vigorously rise upward into the heavens 
( a combination of initial lifting by the outflow boundary + orographically forced lifting by lofty topography ).  
The outflow boundary acting like a mini-cold front.

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:29 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:33 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:38 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:42 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:46 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:50 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:55 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:59 PM - July 8, 2012

Orographic cold pool and flow field blocking occurred 
as convection subsequently got "hung up" during the evening over the High Knob Massif, with this initial wave of thunderstorms not being able to propagate south of the Clinch River Valley into southern Scott County 
( observe on following frames ).

Eventually, new development occurred toward the southwest to push back into western-southern portions of the massif ( Wise, Scott, Lee border area ).

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:03 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:08 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:12 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:17 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:21 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:25 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:29 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:34 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:38 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:42 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:46 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:51 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:55 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:59 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:03 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:08 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:12 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:16 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:20 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:25 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:29 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:33 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:37 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:40 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:46 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:50 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:54 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:59 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:03 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:07 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:12 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:17 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:21 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:25 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:29 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:34 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:38 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:42 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:46 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:51 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:55 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:59 PM - July 8, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:03 AM - July 9, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:08 AM - July 9, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:12 AM - July 9, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:16 AM - July 9, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:20 AM - July 9, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:25 AM - July 9, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:29 AM - July 9, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:33 AM - July 9, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:37 AM - July 9, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:42 AM - July 9, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:46 AM - July 9, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:50 AM - July 9, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:54 AM - July 9, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:59 AM - July 9, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:03 AM - July 9, 2012

Doppler Estimated Rainfall At 5:00 PM - July 8, 2012

( With Increase From 5:00 PM July 8 )
Doppler Estimated Rainfall At 7:55 AM - July 9, 2012

A general 1.00" to 4.00"+ of rainfall occurred during this event from east facing rims of Big Cherry Basin to Guest River Gorge and adjacent sections of Sandy Ridge to the north ( and the Clinch River Valley toward the south ).  

Rainfall accumulated amid a 12-hour period between 1:30 PM July 8 to 1:30 AM July 9.

My friends Otis & Nancy Ward verified these Doppler estimated rainfall totals with a 3.45" rain gauge measurement in the Robinson Knob community of the High Knob Massif during morning hours of July 9.

July 4, 2012
Independence Day Beauty
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.


Frontal Boundary Stalls
Jungle Atmosphere Develops

The cold frontal boundary which helped trigger excessive rainfall into July 9 stalled across the Mountain Empire with a continuation of wetness as waves of rain moved along the boundary.

The most persistent and significant rains accumulating from the High Knob Landform southward into extreme northern portons of Tennessee, with sharp decreases in  rain amounts toward the north.


Doppler Radar Time Series

Click consecutively on images to put into motion

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:21 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:30 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:35 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:39 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:44 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:48 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:52 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:56 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:01 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:05 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:09 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:13 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:18 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:22 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:26 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:30 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:35 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:39 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:43 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:47 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:52 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:56 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:00 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:04 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:09 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:13 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:17 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:21 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:26 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:30 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:35 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:39 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:44 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:48 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:52 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:56 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:01 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:05 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:09 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:13 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:18 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:22 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:26 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:30 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:35 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:39 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:44 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:47 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:52 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:56 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:00 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:05 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:09 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:13 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:17 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:22 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:26 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:30 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:35 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:40 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:44 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:48 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:52 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:57 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:01 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:05 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:10 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:14 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:18 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:22 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:26 AM - July 10, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:31 AM - July 10, 2012

Significant rainfall moving along the stalled frontal boundary was generally restricted to locations along and south of the Tennessee Valley Divide and High Knob Landform, as illustrated by the Doppler estimated rainfall graphic below.

Note the well defined north to south rainfall gradient.

( Rainfall Totals Ending At 1:01 PM )
Doppler Estimated Rainfall For July 10, 2012

This generated significant 48-hour rainfall totals when combined with the heavy thunderstorms of July 8, as illustrated by the next Doppler graphic.

Doppler Estimated Rainfall For July 8-10, 2012

Rainfall Totals For July 8-10
( Most totals through 8:00 AM July 11 )

Blacksburg: 0.22"

Clintwood 1 W: 0.28"

Nora 4 SSE: 0.74"

Burkes Garden: 1.05"

Lebanon: 1.14"

Norton Water Plant: 1.59"

Coeburn Filter Plant: 2.24"

Big Stone Gap Water Plant: 2.93"

Appalachia Lake Water Plant: 2.99"

Big Cherry Dam of High Knob Massif: 3.13"

Little Mountain of High Knob Massif: 3.62"

Robinson Knob of High Knob Massif: 4.65"

Both Doppler radar and rain gauges revealed a huge rainfall gradient across southwestern Virginia during this period, with the accuracy of Doppler verses hand-measurements suggesting that up to 7.00" could have fallen in parts of the High Knob Landform counties.


The Next Wave Of Rain
Afternoon of July 11, 2012 

The next wave of liquid sunshine did not wait long as stratiform rainfall gave way to developing convection into afternoon hours of July 11, with a west to northwest propagation across the Tennessee Valley Divide and High Knob Massif.

Doppler Radar Time Series

Click consecutively on images to put into motion

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:43 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:47 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:52 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:57 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:01 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:05 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:10 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:14 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:18 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:22 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:27 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:31 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:35 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:39 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:44 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:48 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:52 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:56 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:01 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:05 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:09 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:13 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:18 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:22 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:26 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:30 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:35 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:39 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:43 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:47 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:52 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:57 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:01 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:05 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:10 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:14 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:18 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:22 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:27 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:31 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:35 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:40 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:44 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:48 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:52 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:56 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:01 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:05 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:09 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:13 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:18 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:22 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:26 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:30 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:35 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:39 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:43 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:47 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:52 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:57 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:01 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:05 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:10 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:14 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:18 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:22 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:27 PM - July 11, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:31 PM - July 11, 2012


Coolest Day of July 2012
More Rain On July 12-13

The most significant aspect of the following day was not total rainfall amounts but temperatures, which under low clouds, light rain, and mountain fog held in the 60s all day above 2000 feet.  In fact, MAX temperatures reached only 60 to 65 degrees above 2700 feet in the High Knob Massif area on July 12.


Doppler Radar Time Series
( Hourly Frames )

Click consecutively on images to put into motion

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:03 AM - July 12, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:03 AM - July 12, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:03 AM - July 12, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:59 AM - July 12, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:03 PM - July 12, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:59 PM - July 12, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:03 PM - July 12, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:00 PM - July 12, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:00 PM - July 12, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:00 PM - July 12, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:03 PM - July 12, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:00 PM - July 12, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:59 PM - July 12, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:00 PM - July 12, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:59 PM - July 12, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:00 PM - July 12, 2012

July 13, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:00 AM - July 13, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:00 AM - July 13, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:00 AM - July 13, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:00 AM - July 13, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:00 AM - July 13, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:00 AM - July 13, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:00 AM - July 13, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:01 AM - July 13, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 8:00 AM - July 13, 2012

Rainfall Totals For July 11-13
( Totals Through 9 AM July 13 )

Fort Blackmore: 0.35"

Nora 4 SSE: 0.49"

Clintwood 1 W: 0.54"

Duffield: 0.66"

Dungannon: 0.70"

Robinson Knob of High Knob Massif: 0.84"

Norton Water Plant: 1.40"

Big Stone Gap Water Plant: 1.51"

Appalachia Lake Water Plant: 1.66"

Coeburn Filter Plant: 1.66"

Rainfall totals in the wake of this event, for the July 1-13 
( AM ) period, reached 5.90" at the Coeburn Filter Plant, 6.32" at Appalachia Lake Water Plant and 7.04" in the Robinson Knob community of the High Knob Massif.

( Local amounts topped 8.00" during these first 13 days of July 2012 across portions of Wise-Scott counties ).


Torrential Rains
Convective Eruption of July 14, 2012

A scattered array of hit-miss showers and brief downpours in thundershowers developed with heating on July 14 before an eruption of much stronger storms during mid-late afternoon.


Doppler Radar Time Series

Click consecutively on images to put into motion

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:46 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:50 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:55 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:59 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:03 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:07 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:11 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:16 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:20 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:34 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:46 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:03 PM - July 14, 2012

The hit and run nature of downpours up to early afternoon began changing after 3:00 PM as stronger thunderstorms over Dickenson and Buchanan counties began backbuilding across central Dickenson, with formation & reformation along the same corridor prompting a flash flood warning. 

( Reference later graphic of 1-hour rainfall rates ).

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:16 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:20 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:25 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:29 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:33 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:37 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:41 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:46 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:50 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:54 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:58 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:03 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:07 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:11 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:15 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:20 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:24 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:28 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:33 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:38 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:42 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:46 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:50 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:55 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:59 PM - July 14, 2012

A new area of concern developed after 5:00 PM as storms lifting north out of the Great Valley of eastern Tennessee began converging with storms forming along the 
High Knob Landform.

Explosive convective development followed as a rather atypical V-shaped squall line of booming thunderstorms formed across the High Knob Massif - Black Mountain corridor, with the V-shaped storm line appearing to move backwards ( with respect to how such a bowed, V-shape is typically observed on Doppler ) even though it was propagating forwards ( from SSW to NNE ).

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:03 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:07 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:12 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:16 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:20 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:24 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:29 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:33 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:37 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:41 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:46 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:50 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:54 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 5:58 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:03 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:07 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:11 PM - July 14, 2012

As the thunderstorm line began coming off the lofty High Knob Massif - Black Mountain corridor it developed kinks, or bows, outward in the direction of its movement ( as is most typically seen ) during the 6:10 to 7:00 PM period, with notable weakening after 7:00 PM as it moved down off the the Cumberland Overthrust Block into eastern Kentucky foothill terrain.

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:15 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:20 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:24 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:28 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:33 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:38 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:42 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:46 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:50 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:55 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 6:59 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:03 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:07 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:12 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:16 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:20 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:24 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:29 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:33 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:37 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:41 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:46 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 7:50 PM - July 14, 2012

Doppler radar revealed the torrential nature of rain associated with strong thunderstorms during July 14, with up to 2.00"+ per hour falling in local places.  
The first significant hit being over northeastern Dickenson County.

Doppler Estimated 1-Hour Rainfall - Ending 4:38 PM

Rapid water level rises and minor flooding were later reported in Powell Valley of Wise County as the main thunderstorm line developed along the High Knob Massif with a torrential burst of rain spreading across the Powell Mountain Block, between Duffield & East Stone Gap, and up through the head of Powell Valley 
( heaviest rainfall flanking Big Cherry Basin ).

Another area of excessive rainfall was centered south of Darwin along the Dickenson-Wise border.

Doppler Estimated 1-Hour Rainfall - Ending 6:11 PM

Doppler Estimated 1-Hour Rainfall - Ending 6:28 PM

Doppler Estimated 1-Hour Rainfall - Ending 6:38 PM


Localized Terrain Convection
July 15, 2012


Doppler Radar Time Series

Click consecutively on images to put into motion

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:04 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:08 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:12 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:16 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:21 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:25 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:29 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:33 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:38 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:42 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:46 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:50 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:55 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:59 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:03 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler 1-Hour Rainfall Estimate Ending 2:03 PM

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:07 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:12 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:16 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:20 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:24 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:29 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:33 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:37 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:41 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:46 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:51 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:55 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:59 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:04 PM - July 15, 2012

Doppler 1-Hour Rainfall Estimate Ending 3:04 PM

Doppler Rainfall For July 15 Ending At 8:03 PM


Active Thunderstorms
July 16, 2012

Doppler Radar Time Series

Click consecutively on images to put into motion

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:01 AM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:06 AM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:10 AM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:14 AM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:19 AM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:23 AM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:27 AM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:31 AM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:36 AM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:40 AM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:44 AM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:48 AM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:53 AM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:57 AM - July 16, 2012

*Bow Echo Formation
Leeward of High Knob Massif

After storms came together along the High Knob Massif, with downpours of rain, distinct bow echo formation occurred as they moved off the high country into the Clinch and Holston river valleys toward the Virginia-Tennessee stateline.  This rocked the Tri-Cities with booming storms and a gush of strong winds ( note that TRI, or Tri-City Airport, 
is located at the Bristol label on the map near Boone Lake, with the actual City of Bristol to the northeast along the VA-TN border ). 

*The formation of bow echoes leeward of the High Knob Massif has been documented many times in the past amid this type of NW airflow pattern ( analogous to bows that develop leeward of the Blue Ridge into the Piedmont of Virginia-North Carolina given specific parameters ).

In other words, not all such thunderstorm clusters develop bows with vertical atmospheric conditions across the mountains, upstream and to their lee, modulating their behavior.

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:01 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:05 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:10 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:14 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:18 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:22 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:27 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:31 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:35 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:39 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:44 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:48 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:52 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:56 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:01 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:06 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:10 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:14 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:19 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:23 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:27 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:31 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:36 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:40 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:44 PM - July 16, 2012

The bow echo lost definition upon crossing into Tennessee as upstream downpours of rain developed along the High Knob Landform.  The most significant thunderstorm formation occurred during the 
3:00 to 4:00 PM period over Wise County.

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:01 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:06 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:10 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:14 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:19 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:23 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:27 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:31 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:36 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:40 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:44 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:48 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:53 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:57 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:01 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:05 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:10 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:14 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:18 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:22 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:27 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:31 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:35 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:39 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:44 PM - July 16, 2012

Doppler 1-Hour Estimated Rainfall - Ending 4:44 PM

Doppler Rainfall For July 15 Ending At 8:03 PM

( 48-hour period ending at 8:01 PM - July 16, 2012 )
Doppler Rainfall For July 15 + July 16 Combined


Wet Feedback Enhances
Torrential Rainers
July 17, 2012


Doppler Radar Time Series

Click consecutively on images to put into motion

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:20 AM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:25 AM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:29 AM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:33 AM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:38 AM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:43 AM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:47 AM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:51 AM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:56 AM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:00 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:05 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:08 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:13 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:17 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:21 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:26 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:30 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:34 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:38 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:43 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:47 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:51 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:55 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:00 PM - July 17, 2012

My friend and photographer Harold Jerrell reported 2.44" of rainfall in just 30 minutes at his home located southeast of Rose Hill in the Silver Leaf community of western Lee County of the High Knob Landform 
( visible at lower left on Doppler frames ).  

These torrential rainfall rates were well illustrated by Doppler radar, which estimated 1-hour rainfall maxs of more than 3.00" .

Doppler 1-Hour Rainfall Ending At 1:00 PM

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:04 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:08 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:12 PM - July 17, 2012

( 1-Hour MAX up to 3.40" )
Doppler 1-Hour Rainfall Ending At 1:12 PM

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:17 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:21 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:25 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:29 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:34 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler 1-Hour Rainfall Ending At 1:34 PM

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:38 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:43 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:47 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:52 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:56 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:00 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:04 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:09 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:13 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:17 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:21 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:26 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:30 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:34 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:39 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:43 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:47 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:51 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:56 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:00 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:04 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:08 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:13 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:17 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:21 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:25 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:30 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler 1-Hour Rainfall Ending At 3:30 PM

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:34 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:38 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:43 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:48 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:52 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:56 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:00 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:05 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:09 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:13 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 4:17 PM - July 17, 2012

Doppler Radar Rainfall Estimate For July 15-16

Doppler 1-Hour Rainfall Ending 6:38 PM - July 14

( Ending at 8:00 PM - July 17, 2012 )
Doppler Radar Rainfall Estimate For July 17

Rainfall Totals For July 14-18
( Totals Through 9 AM July 18 )

Fort Blackmore: 0.28"

Nora 4 SSE: 0.41"

Clintwood 1 W: 0.73"

Dungannon: 0.75"

Appalachia Lake Water Plant: 0.83"

Robinson Knob of High Knob Massif: 0.94"

Coeburn Filter Plant: 1.04"

Big Stone Gap Water Plant: 1.68"

*Norton AWS: 2.22"

Norton Water Plant: 2.29"

*The AWS Weatherbug station is located at Norton Elementary School, 1.4 air mile from the official NWS rain gauge at Norton Water Plant, and has a known under-catch on its rain gauge that averages 15-25% on any given event ( suggesting rainfall this period was in the 2.61" to 2.96" range to support the heavier Doppler estimates over the Norton AWS station ).

Rainfall once again varied wildly across the area during the July 14-18 period with some of the heaviest rains falling just southwest of the City of Norton, along portions of Little Stone Mountain and Powell Valley of the High Knob Massif, and across western Lee County where local totals reached 4.00"+ amid this time period.

( Above rainfall totals are not included in the event below ).


Flash Flooding Develops
Against Mountains
July 18, 2012

Development of more heavy rain during July 18 generated a significant flash flood on the Kentucky side of the stateline where the foothills rise upward toward the mountains of the Cumberland Block, just northwest of Pine Mountain in southeastern Perry and Knott counties ( SE of Hazard ).


Doppler Radar Time Series

Click consecutively on images to put into motion

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 9:58 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:06 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:15 AM - July 18, 2012

Although thunderstorms developed southeast across the mountains on the Virginia side of the stateline with time, note that a persistent area of heavy rains lingered with backbuilding storms along the northwest flank of an expanding precipitation field ( upshear development with nearly stationary motion along the southeastern edge of the Kentucky foothills, northwest of Pine Mountain and the Cumberland Overthrust Block ). 

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:23 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:28 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:32 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:36 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:40 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:45 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:49 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:53 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 10:57 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:02 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:06 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:10 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:14 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:19 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:23 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:27 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:31 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:36 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:40 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:44 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:48 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:54 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 11:58 AM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:02 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:06 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:11 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:15 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:19 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:23 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:28 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:32 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:36 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:40 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:45 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:49 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:53 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 12:57 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:02 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:06 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:10 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:14 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:18 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:23 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:27 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:36 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:44 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 1:54 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:02 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:15 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:23 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:32 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:40 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:49 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 2:57 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Base Reflectivity At 3:02 PM - July 18, 2012

Doppler Estimated 1-Hour Rainfall Ending At 12:02 PM

Doppler Estimated 1-Hour Rainfall Ending At 1:02 PM

Doppler Estimated 1-Hour Rainfall Ending At 2:02 PM

Doppler Estimated 1-Hour Rainfall Ending At 3:02 PM

( Rainfall Totals Ending At 3:02 PM )
Doppler Estimated Rainfall For July 18, 2012

Continued in the next section....


This section is under construction.  Check back for updates.

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