Tuesday, April 8, 2014

April Showers & Spectacular Mountain Skies


April 4, 2014
Along The Tennessee Valley Divide
Burst Of Early Evening Color Above Bear Ridge
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

Wayne Riner Photograph Thoughts...
"A passing rain shower left a blast of color.  The red bloom of color on maple trees below the rainbow show that warmer temps have had an effect."

The first maples began budding across lower-middle elevations, below 3000 feet, during mid-late March.


April 5, 2014
Looking West from City of Norton
Majestic April Sunset Over The Cumberlands
Photograph by Roddy Addington - © All Rights Reserved.

Following a cold and frequently snowy March, and first month of meteorological spring, a bounty of April showers watered the mountain landscape during this first true week of spring rebirth.

March 2014 And Cold Season 2013-14 Statistics

April 9, 2014
Spring Rebirth Along The Tennessee Valley Divide
Beauty of Bloodroot ( Sanguinaria canadensis )
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

Wayne Riner Photograph Thoughts...
"As we walk the spring woods looking for mushrooms, let's stop to consider the small beauties of early wildflowers hidden amid last autumn's leaves."


Simply spectacular skies 
have been observed.


CAM Elevation 2600 feet
High Knob Massif Webcam
Spectacular Skies
April 7, 2014

Click consecutively on images for motion
  ( Using Keyboard Arrow Keys Is Faster )

April 7, 2014 at 5:56 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 5:56 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 5:57 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 5:57 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 5:58 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 5:58 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 5:59 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 5:59 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:00 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

The interaction of convection and orographics makes this setting more spectacular as lines of wave clouds form & reform above the massif over time amid clouds displaying vertical development.

April 7, 2014 at 6:13 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:14 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:14 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:15 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:15 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:16 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:16 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:42 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:43 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:43 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:44 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:44 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:45 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:45 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:46 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:46 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:47 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:47 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:48 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:48 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:49 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:49 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:50 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:50 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:51 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:52 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:52 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:53 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:53 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:54 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:55 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

A light shower that moved north from the massif over Wise during the next few minutes marked the beginning of an evening with hit-miss showers and local downpours, amid strong & gusty SSE-SW winds, ahead of an April cold front.

April 7, 2014 at 6:55 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:56 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:59 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 6:59 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:00 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:00 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:01 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:01 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:02 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:02 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:03 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:03 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:04 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

April 7, 2014 at 7:04 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

Reference the following for more spectacular scenes:

Late March & Early April Skies - Winter Statistics

Most Intense Snow Squalls of Winter 2013-14
( Section Still Under Construction )

Dramatic Weather Change & NW Upslope Flow Snow

Dance of Sun-Clouds-Ice And SE Mountain Waves


Pushing Severe Limits
Thunderstorm With Hail Core
Evening of April 3, 2014

A strong thunderstorm that rapidly developed during evening hours of April 3 developed a notable heavy rain & hail core, that locally approached severe limits, as it moved off Pine Mountain and across the Russell Fork Basin of northern Wise, Dickenson, and extreme southern Buchanan counties in southwestern Virginia. 

Click consecutively on images for motion
  ( Using Keyboard Arrow Keys Is Faster )

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 9:46 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 9:50 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 9:55 PM

Note that the thunderstorm developed a small bow shape as it crossed Pine Mountain with increasing reflectivity into the Russell Fork Basin ( 65 dbz at MAX levels during next half hour ).

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:00 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:04 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:09 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:14 PM

Although the highest base reflectivities developed over south-central Dickenson County the largest VIL Density, of around 3.2 grams per cubic meter, occurred south of Clintwood when the thunderstorm was along the 
Wise-Dickenson border.

Nicole M. Belk and Lyle D. Wilson
Using Cell-Based VIL Density - RLX NWSFO

Ted Funk
VIL Density As A Hail Indicator

In this case a fast moving mini-bowed storm ( 274 degrees at 38 knots as 00z NAM Model initialized storm direction/speed ) was pushing into the bounds of severe hail parameters.

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:18 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:23 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:28 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:32 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:37 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:42 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:46 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:51 PM

April 3, 2014
Doppler Radar Base Reflectivity At 10:56 PM

For a review of Doppler radar and severe thunderstorms
reference this section from the April 2011 Outbreak:

( Severe Hail To 2.5" Diameter Is Featured )
Beauty & The Beast - Severe Thunderstorm of April 2011


Classic Spring Differences
Night-Time Vertical Temperature Contrast

CAM Elevation 2600 feet
April 10, 2014 at 1:50 PM
 Looking Toward The High Knob Massif
University Of Virginia's College At Wise
Courtesy of Computer Science-Mathematics Department

Beautiful blue skies adorning much of the daylight hours of April 10 followed a frosty cold morning featuring classic temperature differences typical 
of spring-time in the mountains.

A widespread, hard freeze accompanied thick frost in mountain valleys into sunrise of April 10 to contrast with no frost on exposed mid-upper elevation ridges & plateaus.

Morning MINS varied from low-mid 20s in high valleys above 2500-3000 feet to low 30s in valleys at lower elevations below 1500 feet.  This was in contrast to upper 30s to middle 40s reported across mountain ridges and plateaus exposed to mixing by SW winds ( up to 20+ degrees of vertical temp difference ).

The large variation in valley floors = diversity throughout the year in counties along the mountainous Virginia-Kentucky stateline with respect to temperature differences.

Valley Floor Elevations
( In Feet Above Mean Sea Level )

Elkhorn City: 791 feet
( Pike County, Kentucky )

Pineville: 1015 feet
( Bell County, Kentucky )

Middlesboro: 1154 feet
( Bell County, Kentucky )

Grundy: 1170 feet
( Buchanan County, Virginia )

Whitesburg: 1171 feet
( Letcher County, Kentucky )

Harlan: 1191 feet
( Harlan County, Kentucky )

Haysi: 1266 feet
( Dickenson County, Virginia )

Dungannon: 1311 feet
( Scott County, Virginia )

Clinchco: 1411 feet
( Dickenson County, Virginia )

Cumberland: 1440 feet
( Harlan County, Kentucky )

Big Stone Gap: 1488 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

St. Paul: 1492 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

Jonesville: 1530 feet
( Lee County, Virginia )

Jenkins: 1539 feet
( Letcher County, Kentucky )

Pound: 1560 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

Head of Powell Valley: 1650 feet
( SSW of Valley Chapel in Wise County, VA )

Appalachia: 1651 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

Clintwood: 1771 feet
( Dickenson County, Virginia )

Coeburn: 1992 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

Tacoma: 2000 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

Keokee: 2135 feet
( Lee County, Virginia )

City of Norton: 2141 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

*Wise: 2454 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

Bark Camp Lake: 2734 feet
( Scott County, Virginia )

The Glades: 2900 feet
( Scott County, Virginia )

Big Cherry Lake: 3120 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

**Lower Norton Reservoir: 3239 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

**Upper Norton Reservoir: 3318 feet
( Wise County, Virginia ).

High Knob Lake: 3490 feet
( Wise County, Virginia )

*The Town of Wise sits upon a plateau but lower sections tend to be much cooler on many nights not subjected to moderate-strong winds & efficient mixing ( verses exposed sites like Lonesome Pine Airport at an elevation of 2684 feet above mean sea level ).

**The Lower & Upper Norton Reservoirs sit amid small mountain coves and are not on true valley floors like those of The Glades, Bark Camp Lake, Big Cherry Lake, and High Knob Lake.

Since valley floors are generally much higher on the Virginia side of the stateline, spring emergence is later and autumn color changes earlier than across the border in Kentucky.

Spring 2010
HKL Spring Differences - Elevation + Latitude

The effect of elevation plus changes in latitude along the High Knob Landform, and between the lofty High Knob Massif and Kentucky foothills, was highlighted on this website in detail during the stormy but glorious Spring of 2010.

Other applicable sections

Spring 2010
Glorious Spring Renewal & March Madness

Autumn 2012
Early Autumn Color Changes In High Knob Massif

Autumn 2009
High Knob Landform - Glorious Autumn Climax

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