Sunday, September 18, 2011

MAJOR Rain Event Opens Autumn 2011

In The High Knob Landform
Silver Leaf Community of Lee County
Late Afternoon Downpour - September 6, 2011
Photograph by Harold Jerrell - © All Rights Reserved.

Remnant moisture from Tropical Storm Lee combined with a cold front to generate a major rain event during September 3-6, with heaviest totals centered upon the 24-hour period ending early on September 6 ( showers continued into September 11 ).

Specific Storm Rainfall Totals
( September 3-6 AM, 2011 )

Coeburn Filtration Plant: 7.11"

Kingdom Come State Park, KY: 7.03"

Silver Leaf of Lee County: 7.01"

Harlan 1 S, KY: 5.77"

Whitesburg, KY: 5.67"

City of Norton Water Plant: 5.53"

Robinson Knob of High Knob Massif: 5.35"

Appalachia Lake Water Plant: 5.15"

Nora 4 SSE: 5.13"

Clintwood 1 W: 4.97"

Big Stone Gap Water Plant: 4.27"

Jonesville 3.1 WSW: 4.22"

Most of the above sites picked up an additional 0.25" to 1.00"+ of rain into September 11, with local amounts topping 8.00" in a few spots for the month ( 6.50"+ in Norton ).

Although water got into a few roadways and surrounded several homes, the mountainous border counties along the Virginia-Kentucky stateline escaped with surprisingly few flooding impacts given such impressive rain amounts.

Flooding In Norton - September 5, 2011
Courtesy of WCYB News 5 Archives & Daphanie

Dramatic Weather Changes
Accompany Lee

Truly dramatic weather changes accompanied the approach, strike, and slow passage of Lee across the mountains.

September 3, 2011
Tropical Storm Lee Spins Over New Orleans
Image Courtesy of the Earth Observatory

Subsidence generated by air exhausted outward from the top of tropical storm Lee to the south and violent thunderstorms along a cold front across the Upper Midwest combined to produce some of the hottest temperatures of 2011 on September 3.

Wayne & Genevie Riner recorded their only 90 degree MAX of the year at the 2650 foot elevation of Nora 4 SSE on Long Ridge of Sandy Ridge, along the Tennessee Valley Divide, with widespread 80s being common above 2500 feet in elevation across the adjacent High Knob Massif.

September 3, 2011
Water Vapor Image At 1715 UTC ( 1:15 PM )

While the strike of Lee brought hefty rain amounts, its passage tightened up the pressure gradient into September 6 to crank out some significant orographics via N-NE low-level winds blowing into the High Knob Landform.

A distinct and persistent cloud bank along the northwestern slopes and extended flank of the High Knob Landform was clearly visible from NASA satellites orbiting Earth.

4 KM Resolution
September 6, 2011
Visible Image At 1355 UTC ( 9:55 AM )

Even at 4 KM resolution a distinct clearing line can be seen in the above visible image, with most of Lee County and the northeastern section of Tennessee beneath partly cloudy to clear skies.

Clearing across Lee County being a product of sinking air downsloping leeward of the High Knob Massif on mean NE low-level winds, with added sinking from its extended NW flank of Cumberland-Stone Mountain & the Black Mountains on N winds.

September 6, 2011
NASA Visible At 1733 UTC ( 1:33 PM )
Low Clouds Bank Up Against N-NW Slopes
Link to HD Movie Containing The Above:

From a higher resolution, clouds banked up against the northern and northwestern slopes of the remnant massif and its extended NW flank can be clearly seen in this NASA visible at 1733 UTC. 

September 6, 2011
NASA Visible At 1733 UTC ( 1:33 PM )
Clouds Bank Up Against High Knob Landform

Sensible weather featured a simply amazing contrast with PM temps soaring into middle 80s amid the Tri-Cities of northeastern Tennessee while reaching only 62 degrees in Norton.

Readings in the 50s were common across 
windward slopes and crests of the High Knob Massif.

A literal autumn to summer transition
within only 30 air miles!
( up to 30 degrees of temp difference )

Satellite Movie Clip Of Lee
Courtesy of the Earth Observatory

For a MUCH better resolution version click on the above link and download the larger 77 MB movie to view amazing detail, including that distinct and stationary cloud bank along the High Knob Landform ( see if you can find it / its EASY ).

The sharp cooling trend with Lee marked the beginning of a cloudy, damp, and chilly period.

Daily MAX Temperatures 
Observed In The City of Norton

September 5:  63 degrees
September 6:  62 degrees
September 7:  63 degrees
September 8:  65 degrees
September 9:  67 degrees

Max temperatures during this period were mostly in the 50s across the High Knob high country.

What a change from the 70s & 80s
of September 1-4.

The presence of cool air aloft was evident into September 11 when downpours and local hail with 
a thunderstorm dropped temps to 59.7 degrees in Norton at 4:15 PM ( temps around this same time were as high as 91 degrees in Williamsburg 
of southeastern Virginia ).

Special Feature:
AMAZING Fog Photographs
From Birch Knob of Pine Mountain
by Photographer Bill Harris

September 10, 2011
Birch Knob of Pine Mountain at 3149 feet
Majestic Morning Sunrise Above Fog Bank
Photograph by Bill Harris - © All Rights Reserved.

Amid all the cloudy, wet conditions photographer Bill Harris was able to capture simply incredible views from Birch Knob of Pine Mountain standing upon the Virginia-Kentucky border in northern Dickenson County at sunrise on September 10.


This rippling gem of waves formed over lower terrain of northern Wise, Dickenson & Buchanan counties as fog from US Army Corps of Engineers lakes at North Fork of Pound and John Flannagan merged with that filling the Russell Fork 
and Levisa Fork basins.

Latent heat of condensation from the fog bank combined with its insolating properties to hold MINS in the 50s across these lower elevations ( below 2000 feet ) in contrast to AM MINS of 45 to 50 degrees within higher valleys from the City of Norton upward into the High Knob Massif.

It could be seen from NASA satellites far away in space, but with less detail and beauty 
than captured close up by Bill.

( 9:15 AM on September 10, 2011 )
Illustrated NASA Visible Image At 1315 UTC
 Image courtesy of GOES Project Science

With all due respect to NASA, however, it is rather incredible to pack the Outer Banks of North Carolina, shorelines of lower Lake Michigan, and the northern tip of the Gulf of Mexico all into the same image and still pick out these above features 
( well, I've had a bit of practice doing it too! ).

Top Of A Morning Inversion Layer
Majesty In Waves - September 10, 2011
Photograph by Bill Harris - © All Rights Reserved.

Did I say WOW!

( Awesome job Bill ).

Updated: September 15, 2011
Large Temperature Gradient
Across The Old Dominion

NASA Visible - September 15, 2011
NOAA GOES 13 Image At 1831 UTC ( 2:31 PM )
Image Courtesy of GOES Project Science

HUGE temperature contrasts often develop across Virginia between the mountains and Atlantic Coast during the cool season, with the first strong cold front of Autumn 2011 being a perfect example.

Embedded within the long cloud bank seen above at 1831 UTC on September 15, 2011 was a 40+ degree temperature difference across the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Early afternoon temperatures varied from chilly 40s in the High Knob Massif to lower 90s within portions of eastern Virginia.  Amazing!

A Few Specific Examples

2:00 PM on September 15, 2011
Eagle Knob of High Knob Massif: 47 degrees
Lonesome Pine Airport in Wise: 54 degrees
City of Norton: 54 degrees
Richlands: 57 degrees
Blacksburg: 75 degrees
Roanoke: 75 degrees
Danville: 87 degrees
Richmond: 88 degrees
Norfolk Naval Station: 89 degrees
Franklin: 90 degrees
Petersburg: 90 degrees
Williamsburg: 91 degrees

3:00 PM on September 15, 2011
Eagle Knob of High Knob Massif: 46 degrees
Lonesome Pine Airport in Wise: 52 degrees
City of Norton: 52 degrees
Grayson Highlands State Park: 60 degrees
Roanoke: 76 degrees
Richmond: 84 degrees
Danville: 85 degrees
Wallops Island: 88 degrees
Norfolk Naval Station: 90 degrees
Petersburg: 90 degrees
Franklin: 91 degrees
Williamsburg: 91 degrees

4:00 PM on September 15, 2011
Eagle Knob of High Knob Massif: 45 degrees
Lonesome Pine Airport in Wise: 52 degrees
City of Norton: 52 degrees
Franklin: 90 degrees
Norfolk Naval Station: 90 degrees
Petersburg: 90 degrees
Williamsburg: 90 degrees

With dense swirling fog on upsloping N winds of 10-20+ mph the dreaded WIND CHILL actually became a substantial mid-upper elevation factor in the High Knob Massif ( DARE I say! ).

Tennessee Valley Divide - Long Ridge of Sandy Ridge
Cool Sunrise - Morning of September 16, 2011
Photograph by Wayne Riner - © All Rights Reserved.

Wayne Riner Photograph Thoughts...
"It was the coolest morning of the season with a low temp of 40 degrees.  Our favorite black locust still holds its browning leaves that will soon fall. Flat Spur is on the lower horizon."

Enough breaks in the overcast are seen above to further illuminate the awesome display of wave clouds captured so well by friend & photographer Wayne Riner amid the morning chill of September 16.

Widespread MINS in the 30s to lower 40s were common ( coolest in the High Knob Massif ) but frost was not a feature due to so many lingering clouds above the mountains of far southwestern Virginia.

Climate Statistics 
For August 2011

( Lower Elevations of Russell Fork Basin )
Clintwood 1 W - Elevation 1560 feet
Average Daily MAX: 81.8 degrees
Average Daily MIN: 59.9 degrees
MEAN: 70.8 degrees
Highest Temperature: 88 degrees
Lowest Temperature: 52 degrees
August Rainfall: 1.73"

( Northern Base of High Knob Massif )
City of Norton - Elevation 2141 feet
Average Daily MAX: 81.0 degrees
Average Daily MIN: 57.0 degrees
MEAN: 69.0 degrees
Highest Temperature: 87 degrees
Lowest Temperature: 49 degrees
August Rainfall: 5.55"

( Along the Tennessee Valley Divide )
Nora 4 SSE - Elevation 2650 feet
Average Daily MAX: 79.8 degrees
Average Daily MIN: 62.3 degrees
MEAN: 71.0 degrees
Highest Temperature: 86 degrees
Lowest Temperature: 57 degrees
August Rainfall: 2.24"

( Northern Edge of The Cedars )
Jonesville 3.1 WSW - Elevation 1422 feet
Average Daily MAX: 86.5 degrees
Average Daily MIN: 61.2 degrees
MEAN: 73.8 degrees
Highest Temperature: 92 degrees
Lowest Temperature: 50 degrees
August Rainfall: 5.04"

In the High Knob high country August temp means varied from 70 to 75 degrees by days in the highest elevations to the 50s by night amid cooler mountain basins.

August rains were around average with a general 4.00" to 6.00" across the massif area and its adjoining landform being in marked contrast to much less rain toward the north and east within the Russell Fork & Levisa Fork basins and the middle to upper Clinch River Basin.

Reference the next section for a listing of 
August & summer rainfall totals from across Virginia.

Climate Statistics For
August & Summer 2011

Bark Camp Lake of High Knob Massif
American Bullfrog ( Lithobates catesbeianus )
Photograph by Richard Kretz - © All Rights Reserved.

Summer 2011 was wet and humid across the High Knob Landform with a general 16" to 26" of total rainfall ( a few places being below and above that range as suggested below ).

Climate Statistics For June-August 2011

( Lower Elevations of Russell Fork Basin )
Clintwood 1 W - Elevation 1560 feet
Average Daily MAX: 82.0 degrees
Average Daily MIN: 60.5 degrees
Summer MEAN: 71.2 degrees
Highest Summer Temperature: 89 degrees
Lowest Summer Temperature: 48 degrees
Total Rainfall: 17.18"

( Northern Base of High Knob Massif )
City of Norton - Elevation 2141 feet
Average Daily MAX: 81.1 degrees
Average Daily MIN: 57.8 degrees
Summer MEAN: 69.4 degrees
Highest Summer Temperature: 89 degrees
Lowest Summer Temperature: 45 degrees
Total Rainfall: 20.38"

( Along the Tennessee Valley Divide )
Nora 4 SSE - Elevation 2650 feet
Average Daily MAX: 79.6 degrees
Average Daily MIN: 62.8 degrees
Summer MEAN: 71.2 degrees
Highest Summer Temperature: 88 degrees
Lowest Summer Temperature: 51 degrees
Total Rainfall: 12.27"

( Northern Edge of The Cedars )
Jonesville 3.1 WSW - Elevation 1422 feet
Average Daily MAX: 86.8 degrees
Average Daily MIN: 62.2 degrees
Summer MEAN: 74.5 degrees
Highest Summer Temperature: 95 degrees
Lowest Summer Temperature: 48 degrees
Total Rainfall: 12.70"

In the High Knob high country summer temp means were within the lower to middle 70s by day at the highest elevations and in the 50s to around 60 degrees during night ( coolest amid lofty basins ).  

Summer rainfall totals generally varied between 18.00" and 28.00"; although, extremes were likely below and above that range given an abundance of convection throughout the entire season across the massif ( with locally excessive amounts in July ).

The High Knob Massif is so large and diverse that wet-dry summer feedbacks typically become superimposed on it each warm season, with "dry" locations relative to wettest places which change from one season to the next.

Locations amid and adjacent to the major gorges often being favored for the heaviest summer rains verses highest interior ridges which may be flanked by the most intense rain cores.

While Doppler radar tends to support this in the High Knob Massif, rain gage catches make it difficult to quantify along the highest, exposed ridges where gage undercatches can be severe even in summer.

For a recap of Summer 2010 reference the following section of my website:

Although the meteorological summer period of June-August did not feature any 90 degree days in Norton or higher elevations of the High Knob Massif, it did have a bounty of days that felt hotter than what the thermometer said courtesy of high dewpoint intervals.

A general breakdown of hottest summer temps by elevation range within the High Knob Massif area included:

Summer 2011 MAX Temps
( by General Elevation )

< 2000 feet              > 90 degrees

2000-2700 feet.....85 to 89 degrees

2700-3500 feet.....80 to 85 degrees

3500-4200 feet.....75 to 80 degrees

There were numerous exceptions, of course, with northern exposed hollows and slopes being coolest at all elevations while those with mostly southern exposures were warmest.

An interesting aspect as highlighted during Summer 2010 was the tendency for more clouds above the High Knob Massif area, greater rainfall, and more available moisture for evaporation to hold MAX temperatures lower than locations of similar elevation but having much less moisture for robbing insolation ( i.e., diverting a portion of the sun's energy into evaporational processes ).

This adds to the mesic nature and rich woods of the remnant massif and northwestern flank of the High Knob Landform ( HKL ) since in the long term, and mean, this tends to be the cloudiest & wettest area in Virginia ( as this website is well documenting ).

The interior calcareous core of the HKL having more subsidence and less clouds in the mean to also generate a locally nice gradient between the lowlands & highlands of the landform.

A locally offsetting factor, at least to some extent, being the high number of nights and mornings with dense fog formation in the Powell and Clinch River valleys.

For a brief recap of Summer 2009 reference the following section of my website:

Summer 2011 was not as hot as 2010 and not as cool as 2009, with each summer featuring wetness that only varied in the magnitude and placement of MAX and MIN amounts across the HKL and amid its massif in particular.

An interesting summer aspect common to both 2011 and 2010 was an unusual number of record warm nights.

Proponents of anthropogenic Global Warming might cite that as a classic example for their side, while opponents of it would counter by saying that the record period is locally much too short to make any such bold claim.

Since the climatic system is a highly nonlinear system it possesses unexpected and unpredictable responses to both the internal and also the very important but less talked about external forcing factors that drive it over time.

The real truth not typically cited by either side of what has become a crazed, media-driven frenzy is that neither human nor supercomputer knows what really lies ahead for coming decades.

As I have always said, there is only one absolute certainty when it comes to climate.


Moon Photograph - September 17, 2011
Photograph by Jonathan Owens - © All Rights Reserved.

My very good friend Jonathan Owens, TV Meteorologist for WKRG in Mobile-Pensacola, took the above photograph using a camera phone attached to his telescope.  Great job BRO!

August & Summer Rainfall Totals And
2011 Precipitation Totals From Across
Virginia & The District Of Columbia
( Summer Rain Totals Since June 1 )
( 2011 Totals From January 1-August 31 )
*Data is preliminary and not fully NCDC quality controlled.

While summer 2011 was wet from start to finish across most of the High Knob Landform it had a much more spotty coverage of hit-miss showers & storms across much of Virginia, with the Tidewater being the primary recipient of heavy rainfall from hurricane Irene.

There were a few local exceptions like The Cedars section of Lee County where below average rainfall was observed during June & July to generate a large precipitation gradient between lowlands and highlands of the High Knob Landform.

Summer dryness deteriorated into drought east of the High Knob Massif & Tennessee Valley Divide of far southwestern Virginia, with Tidewater sites along the path of Irene showing strong late August-summer recoveries from drought.

This generated two corridors of max summer rainfall in Virginia, one across the far southwest and the other in the far southeast, with most of the remainder of the Old Dominion coming up short with below average summer rains during 2011.

West Point 2 NW
August Rainfall: 8.72"
Summer Rain: 12.46"
2011 Precipitation: 19.28"

John H. Kerr / Buggs Island Dam
August Rainfall: 3.43"
Summer Rain: 8.38"
2011 Precipitation: 20.25"
( 5 missing days January-March )

South Boston
August Rainfall: 1.35"
Summer Rain: 7.07"
2011 Precipitation: 22.45"

August Rainfall: 1.47"
Summer Rain: 6.91"
2011 Precipitation: 22.87"

August Rainfall: 2.06"
Summer Rain: 8.86"
2011 Precipitation: 23.66"

August Rainfall: 2.16"
Summer Rain: 6.36"
2011 Precipitation: 23.03"

Buena Vista
August Rainfall: 3.52"
Summer Rain: 7.14"
2011 Precipitation: 23.68"

Martinsville FP
August Rainfall: 1.09"
Summer Rain: 6.22"
2011 Precipitation: 23.92"

Piedmont Research Station
August Rainfall: 1.53"
Summer Rain: 7.38"
2011 Precipitation: 24.06"
( 1 missing day in May )

Farmville 2 N
August Rainfall: 2.83"
Summer Rain: 8.30"
2011 Precipitation: 24.19"
( 4 missing days in August )

New Castle RAWS
August Rainfall: 0.74"
Summer Rain: 5.53"
2011 Precipitation: 24.47"

August Rainfall: 4.50"
Summer Rain: 10.65"
2011 Precipitation: 24.72"

Philpott Dam 2
August Rainfall: 1.82"
Summer Rain: 5.40"
2011 Precipitation: 25.03"
( 5 missing days January-March )

August Rainfall: 7.78"
Summer Rain: 16.54"
2011 Precipitation: 25.07"
( 1 missing day January )

August Rainfall: 1.45"
Summer Rain: 8.72"
2011 Precipitation: 25.09"

Virginia Beach RAWS
August Rainfall: 5.78"
Summer Rain: 13.30"
2011 Precipitation: 25.11"

Washington D.C. Dulles Airport
August Rainfall: 3.74"
Summer Rain: 7.72"
2011 Precipitation: 25.36"

Pulaski 2 E
August Rainfall: 0.78"
Summer Rain: 8.24"
2011 Precipitation: 25.39"

Kerrs Creek 6 WNW
August Rainfall: 3.47"
Summer Rain: 7.26"
2011 Precipitation: 25.65"

August Rainfall: 2.08"
Summer Rain: 6.20"
2011 Precipitation: 25.79"

August Rainfall: 2.79"
Summer Rain: 8.34"
2011 Precipitation: 25.85"

Wallops Island
August Rainfall: 8.38"
Summer Rain: 15.62"
2011 Precipitation: 25.95"

August Rainfall: 4.90"
Summer Rain: 11.56"
2011 Precipitation: 26.18"

Staffordsville 3 ENE
August Rainfall: 1.25"
Summer Rain: 6.64"
2011 Precipitation: 26.20"

Strasburg 3.7 N
August Rainfall: 2.01"
Summer Rain: 8.38"
2011 Precipitation: 26.29"
( 2 missing days August )

Gathright Dam
August Rainfall: 2.51"
Summer Rain: 6.61"
2011 Precipitation: 26.97"

Covington FP
August Rainfall: 1.46"
Summer Rain: 9.21"
2011 Precipitation: 27.00"

Holcomb Rock
August Rainfall: 2.29"
Summer Rain: 7.30"
2011 Precipitation: 27.22"
( 2 missing days in August )

August Rainfall: 2.61"
Summer Rain: 6.90"
2011 Precipitation: 27.24"
( 1 day missing February )

Washington D.C. National Airport
August Rainfall: 8.92"
Summer Rain: 13.63"
2011 Precipitation: 27.30"

Emporia 1 WNW
August Rainfall: 11.19"
Summer Rain: 16.43"
2011 Precipitation: 27.74"
( 2 days missing June )

Wytheville 1 S
August Rainfall: 3.74"
Summer Rain: 9.25"
2011 Precipitation: 27.88"

August Rainfall: 3.62"
Summer Rain: 7.80"
2011 Precipitation: 27.90"

August Rainfall: 2.12"
Summer Rain: 8.37"
2011 Precipitation: 27.93"

August Rainfall: 2.93"
Summer Rain: 8.27"
2011 Precipitation: 28.35"
( 3 days missing in both January & February )

Waynesboro WTP
August Rainfall: 3.96"
Summer Rain: 9.38"
2011 Precipitation: 28.37"
( 2 days missing March / 2 days missing August )

Bluefield ( West Virginia )
August Rainfall: 2.34"
Summer Rain: 7.49"
2011 Precipitation: 28.40"

Abingdon 3 S
August Rainfall: 2.70"
Summer Rain: 6.87"
2011 Precipitation: 28.47"
( 10 missing days during year )

August Rainfall: 1.25"
Summer Rain: 7.81"
2011 Precipitation: 28.50"

Woodstock 2 NE
August Rainfall: 5.06"
Summer Rain: 11.43"
2011 Precipitation: 28.79"
( 6 missing days during year )

August Rainfall: 2.22"
Summer Rain: 9.00"
2011 Precipitation: 28.91"
( 3 missing days January )

August Rainfall: 2.17"
Summer Rain: 6.55"
2011 Precipitation: 29.33"

August Rainfall: 7.10"
Summer Rain: 13.76"
2011 Precipitation: 29.59"

August Rainfall: 5.43"
Summer Rain: 12.38"
2011 Precipitation: 29.60"

August Rainfall: 4.81"
Summer Rain: 10.83"
2011 Precipitation: 29.63"

Staunton WTP
August Rainfall: 4.93"
Summer Rain: 11.98"
2011 Precipitation: 30.09"

Great Dismal National Wildlife Refuge
August Rainfall: 12.69"
Summer Rain: 17.91"
2011 Precipitation: 30.46"

August Rainfall: 2.58"
Summer Rain: 5.97"
2011 Precipitation: 30.65"

Glasgow 1 SE
August Rainfall: 3.33"
Summer Rain: 7.39"
2011 Precipitation: 30.66"

August Rainfall: 8.05"
Summer Rain: 18.63"
2011 Precipitation: 31.15"
( 5 missing days during year )

Millgap 2 NNW
August Rainfall: 4.68"
Summer Rain: 7.01"
2011 Precipitation: 31.23"

Saltville 1 N
August Rainfall: 2.89"
Summer Rain: 8.86"
2011 Precipitation: 31.31"

Burkes Garden
August Rainfall: 2.67"
Summer Rain: 9.67"
2011 Precipitation: 31.37"

August Rainfall: 7.99"
Summer Rain: 14.28"
2011 Precipitation: 31.37"

August Rainfall: 2.50"
Summer Rain: 9.94"
2011 Precipitation: 31.37"

Dale Enterprise
August Rainfall: 5.86"
Summer Rain: 11.99"
2011 Precipitation: 31.79"
( 1 day missing February )

Galax WTP
August Rainfall: 5.22"
Summer Rain: 10.32"
2011 Precipitation: 31.81"
( 1 missing day August )

Luray 5 E
August Rainfall: 5.08"
Summer Rain: 11.34"
2011 Precipitation: 32.90"

Trout Dale 3 SSE
August Rainfall: 2.79"
Summer Rain: 11.20"
2011 Precipitation: 32.97"

Marion 4.4 WSW
August Rainfall: 2.85"
Summer Rain: 10.28"
2011 Precipitation: 33.16"
( 4 days missing year )

Bedford 4 NW
August Rainfall: 6.23"
Summer Rain: 17.12"
2011 Precipitation: 33.67"

Suffolk Lake Kilby
August Rainfall: 13.13"
Summer Rain: 20.90"
2011 Precipitation: 34.00"

August Rainfall: 2.73"
Summer Rain: 11.74"
2011 Precipitation: 34.28"

August Rainfall: 2.63"
Summer Rain: 12.00"
2011 Precipitation: 35.18"

August Rainfall: 10.69"
Summer Rain: 23.74"
2011 Precipitation: 35.74"

August Rainfall: 8.80"
Summer Rain: 21.25"
2011 Precipitation: 35.96"
( 6 days missing year )

Jonesville 3.1 WSW
August Rainfall: 5.04"
Summer Rain: 12.70"
2011 Precipitation: 36.34"

Lebanon 2.7 SSW
August Rainfall: 1.97"
Summer Rain: 12.24"
2011 Precipitation: 36.35"

Wakefield 1 NW
August Rainfall: 12.83"
Summer Rain: 23.69"
2011 Precipitation: 36.62"
( 1 day missing August )

Nora 4 SSE
August Rainfall: 2.24"
Summer Rain: 12.27"
2011 Precipitation: 36.66"

August Rainfall: 10.79"
Summer Rain: 26.31"
2011 Precipitation: 38.31"

Meadows of Dan 5 SW
August Rainfall: 2.28"
Summer Rain: 11.30"
2011 Precipitation: 38.77"

Mustoe 1.2 SW
August Rainfall: 6.62"
Summer Rain: 13.23"
2011 Precipitation: 39.75"
( 4 days missing year )

Clintwood 1 W
August Rainfall: 1.73"
Summer Rain: 17.18"
2011 Precipitation: 41.23"

Appalachia Lake Water Plant
August Rainfall: 4.16"
Summer Rain: 17.55"
2011 Precipitation: 43.05"

Coeburn Filter Plant
August Rainfall: 3.74"
Summer Rain: 18.78"
2011 Precipitation: 44.05"

( South Fork Gorge )
Big Stone Gap Water Plant
August Rainfall: 4.81"
Summer Rain: 16.75"
2011 Precipitation: 46.50"

( Yellow Creek, KY RAWS )
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
August Rainfall: 2.50"
Summer Rain: 18.24"
2011 Precipitation: 48.07"

Norton Water Plant
August Rainfall: 5.55"
Summer Rain: 20.38"
2011 Precipitation: 48.50"

Robinson Knob of High Knob Massif
August Rainfall: 4.21"
Summer Rain: 22.94"
2011 Precipitation: 52.41" ( M )

Big Cherry Dam of High Knob Massif
August Rainfall: 4.94"
Summer Rain: 18.28"
2011 Precipitation: 52.63" ( M )

( M ) - Denotes that total precipitation was greater than rain gage total due to evaporation between hand-measurements and physical gage losses in deep falls of snow.

NOTE: Locations with missing days in the above data set may or may not have had any precipitation on those days.

*September 18, 2011
The Two Year Anniversary Of
The High Knob Landform Website
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